YouTube: https://youtube.com/watch?v=tKhViVn5rYY
Previous: Every Winter, These Squirrels Destroy Their Brains
Next: The Strange (But True) History of Hysteria

Categories

Statistics

View count:679
Likes:97
Dislikes:5
Comments:31
Duration:19:48
Uploaded:2018-05-09
Last sync:2018-05-09 21:00
Longtime YouTuber and internet problem solver, Mike Falzone, goes head-to-head with Hank Green to see who is the true Quiz Show master!

Hosted by: Michael Aranda

Head to https://scishowfinds.com/ for hand selected artifacts of the universe!
----------
Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
----------
Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters: Jerry Perez, Lazarus G, Sam Lutfi, Kevin Knupp, Nicholas Smith, D.A. Noe, alexander wadsworth, سلطان الخليفي, Piya Shedden, KatieMarie Magnone, Scott Satovsky Jr, Charles Southerland, Bader AlGhamdi, James Harshaw, Patrick D. Ashmore, Candy, Tim Curwick, charles george, Saul, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Viraansh Bhanushali. Kevin Bealer, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Justin Lentz
----------
Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow
Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com
Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow
----------
Sources:
Crop Circles
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8118257.stm
https://www.britannica.com/science/opium
https://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/83/8325/8325morphine.html

Skinks
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/09/100901-science-animals-evolution-australia-lizard-skink-live-birth-eggs/
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.10877/abstract;jsessionid=B7666761E2EBEC658C4B47DD712EB3C0.d02t01

Vultures
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/extinction-countdown/indian-vultures-are-dying-for-some-good-news/
https://www.nature.com/news/cattle-drug-threatens-thousands-of-vultures-1.19839

Stray Dogs
https://www.ft.com/content/628a8500-ff1c-11de-a677-00144feab49a
https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/moscows-metro-dogs

Chicken Eggs
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5389851
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YrBTg8YANYE

Casein
https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/lanital-milk-dress-qmilch
https://gizmodo.com/5824826/these-women-are-wearing-clothes-made-of-real-milk
http://cameo.mfa.org/wiki/Casein_fiber

Images:
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Papaver_somniferum_field_Tasmania.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Macropus_rufogriseus_rufogriseus_Bruny.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Flowering_poppies_-_tasmania.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yellow-bellied_three-toed_skink.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stray_dogs-pups.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Royal_Winter_Fair_Wool_2.jpg

 (00:00) to (02:00)


(Intro)

Michael: Ladies and gentlemen and non-binary friends, welcome to SciShow Quiz Show, the only quiz show fueled by the tears of climate change deniers.  I'm your host, Michael Aranda, and today on the show, we have founder of the famed YouTube channel ObamasIdiots, Hank Green. 

Hank: Oh no.  Don't bring that...oh, God.  Why do people know things?

Michael: And in this corner, weighing in at over 5'9''--

Mike: Okay.

Michael: L'oreal hair model, Mike Falzone.  

Mike: And thank you so much.  

Michael: Each of our contestants will be competing on behalf of Patreon Patrons.  Hank, today, you're up for Kiera Faye.

Hank: Hi, Kiera.

Michael: Mike, you're playing for Mario Choi.

Mike: Okay.  Hi, Mario.

Michael: Our contestants start out with 10,000 SciShow bucks.  

Hank: Oof.  So many.

Michael: Answer a question correctly, win 200 points.  Answer a question incorrectly, lose 100 points.

Mike: I'm already so confused.  Is this the earliest anyone's been confused?

Michael: It doesn't get better.

Mike: Okay.

Hank: Yeah.  I think points and SciShow bucks are the same.

Mike: Okay.  That clears a lot of stuff up.

Michael: Whoever has the most coins at the end of the game wins stuff.  Stefan, show our contestants what they can go home with today.

Stefan: Hello, howdy, how's it going?  Welcome to the prize situation room, where I bring to you the latest and greatest in SciShow prize technology.  Kiera and Mario, you're both gonna get some signed cards from the final round of the show, but the winner will receive the 'I Won SciShow Quiz Show' pin and the most secretest swag we have to offer, and the loser of the show will be consoled with the ultra-special, super rare, 24 karat 'I Lost SciShow Quiz Show' pin, truly the prize to end all prizes.  But that's all we've got for you today.  Good luck contestants, and back to you.

Michael: Question one.  Our first round is about animals under down under.  

 (02:00) to (04:00)


Specifically, all those weird critters that live in Australia, because really, there's no shortage of them.  Every now and again in Tasmania, which is a small island just south of Melbourne, crop circles will turn up in fields of poppy plants, but after some careful sleuthing, farmers figured out it definitely wasn't aliens or even mischievious people.  

Hank: Oh, whoa.  'Cause those are the two options.  

(?~2:24)

Michael: What was creating those crop circles?  Was it wombats having an allergic reaction, intoxicated wallabies, rings of poisonous spider nests, or flocks of hungry kookaburras?  

Hank: Well, I should always let peo--yes, good job, go first.  

Mike: Thank you, I'll start winning first.  The intoxicated one.

Michael: That is correct.  

Mike: Thank you so much.  I'm gonna go.  See ya!  

Hank: That's like me in Vegas.  I like went at one slot machine and I'm like, I'm never doing this again.  I've won Vegas.

Mike: That's the smartest thing.

Olivia: Tasmania has acres and acres of poppy fields.  In fact, they produce over half of the world's legal opium poppies.  Before you get any ideas, they're all grown for medicinal reasons.  Their seeds are often turned into painkillers used in hospitals all around the world.  Tasmania also has a large population of wallabies, marsupials that look a bit like kangaroos.  They're herbivores that enjoy munching on plants and other leafy things.  Sometimes when a wallaby wanders into a poppy field, it'll make a snack out of the plants, and that's where everything goes haywire.  Opium poppies contain all sorts of chemicals like morphine and codeine, which besides being powerful painkillers, are known to cause states of euphoria in humans, and while no one has done proper experiments on this yet, it's safe to say that at least some of those effects also apply to wallabies.  As one actual government official put it, "The animals become "high as a kite" and start hopping around in circles until they collapse."  The wallabies are fine after a while, but you might not be able to say the same for the fields.  

 (04:00) to (06:00)


Michael: Question two, meanwhile on the mainland, biologists are studying a lizard near the coast called the yellow bellied three toed skink.  It's actually kind of cute.  Like many lizards, these coastal skinks lay eggs to reproduce.  

Mike: Coastal Skinks is my favorite ska band.

Michael: What is so funny--

Mike: Really old school.

Hank: It's a win!  Somebody give him two coins.  

Mike: Uh, let's light it up, please.  

Hank: Let's light it up.  

Mike: Two more coins.  Sorry, coastal skinks.

Michael: Their eggs are so small and exposed that they're pretty vulnerable to predators, but scientists have also found populations of the same lizard up in the mountains, and they've noticed that the mountain skinks have special adaptations to keep their babies safe.  Why do you keep laughing?

Mike: Mountain Skinks is obviously a folk group.  

Hank: The Coastal Skinks when they grew up.

Mike: The Coastal Skinks--

Hank: They were all like, this actually isn't good.  

Mike: You guys heard of this beach?  It's beautiful down here.

Michael: So how do the mountain skinks keep their babies safe: do they bulid camouflage shelters for their eggs out of tree bark, only lay one egg at a time, give birth to live young instead of eggs, or carry their eggs in their mouths until they're ready to hatch.

Hank: Just gonna let Mike do his thing.

Mike: Yeah.  You mean win?  Uh, the mouth one.  

Hank: That's what I was gonna say.  

Michael: That is incorrect, I'm afraid.

Mike: Ahh, okay, should have let--should have got going, and I'm still here.

Hank: The--A.  

Michael: That is also incorrect.  

Olivia: The answer is C, they give birth to live young.  With yellow bellied three toed skinks, biologists are sort of watching evolution in action.  Many reptiles give birth to live young, but these skinks are only one of three species scientists have seen reproduce both ways, so by observing different populations of these lizards all across Australia, researchers can piece together exactly how they transition from laying eggs to live births.  

 (06:00) to (08:00)


Each of these methods has its own advantages and drawbacks, which can help out skinks depending on where they live.  On the coast, laying eggs is more convenient, because the temperature is warmer and it's less of a strain on the mother lizard, but those eggs are also more exposed to predators.  Meanwhile, up in the colder mountains, it's safer for the babies to be kept inside their mothers longer to avoid the extreme weather, and as a bonus, these tiny lizards can scurry away from predators only 36 hours after they're born.  Birthing live young isn't necessarily the better of the two options overall.  It's just different and it's more helpful for the skinks who live in colder climates.  This discovery is also showing scientists that switching from one method of reproduction to the other may not be as complicated as we'd thought, at least not for skinks.

Michael: Okay, our second category is about our unexected effects on the environment.  We all know that humans are, um, not great at taking care of the planet.

Hank: Sure.

Michael: But sometimes, we do well-meaning things with unintended effects.

Hank: Right, like corndogs.  

Mike: Give me another example.  

Hank: Taco Bell.

Mike: Okay, good.  

Michael: Starting in the 1990s, the number of vultures in India began to rapidly decline.  By 2000, three species were even considered endangered.  One type, called the Indian white rumped vulture, actually lost--

Mike: I--you know what I'm doing.

Michael: I could hear it.  I heard it.  The Indian white-rumped vulture actually lost 99.9% of its population, which is nothing to shake a tail feather at.  This population decline was definitely caused by humans but it didn't happen because of deforestation, hunting, or any of the other normal ways that we wreak havoc.  Instead, this so-called Indian vulture crisis had to do with our effects on cows.  So the question is, what caused the Indian vulture crisis: a human induced plague killed 40% of India's cattle, we bred cows to get smaller, we gave the cattle medicine that's poisonous to vultures, or we started raising the cows indoors?

 (08:00) to (10:00)


Hank: It's the medicine one.

Michael: That is correct.  

Mike: Of course.

Hank: Ding ding ding.

Mike: The old medicine answer.  I'm not gonna say it's rigged, but I think we all knew that it was the medicine answer.  What's the next question?

Olivia: In the 1990s, a drug called diclofenac was introduced to cattle in India to help treat inflammation.  The drug is totally fine for the cows, but it turned out to be highly poisonous to vultures, who, for cultural and religious reasons are the main cow consumers in India.  Diclofenac causes kidney failure in the vultures, which leads to build-up of uric acid.  That acid accumulates in their blood and organs and eventually crystallizes in a condition called visceral gout.  It's not pretty.  To protect the vultures, diclofenac was banned in 2006 and the rate of vulture deaths has been steadily declining ever since.

Michael: Thankfully, not all of our effects on the environment are as heart breaking as that.  Sometimes, they're just accidentally funny or surprising.  For example, take stray dogs in Moscow.  

Hank: I'm sad already.

Michael: During the era of the Soviet Union, these strays were barely tolerated.  They'd often by euthanized, turned into clothing, or used for scientific experiments.  

Hank: I thought this one was supposed to be silly.  

Mike: Ha ha ha ha.  

Hank: Haha, so funny.  

Mike: Dog shirts, ha ha ha.

Michael: But when the Soviet Union collapsed, so did the distaste for dogs.  Today, there's only one stray dog for every 300 people in Moscow.  

Mike: That's a great ratio.

Michael: Over the years, these animals have even learned a special skill to make the most of life in a big city.  What is it?

Mike: That's it.  That's the skill.  Making the most of the place.  It's not so bad.  It's a very nice place.

Hank: Did you see?  I got half a hamburger today.  

Mike: They developed optimism.  

 (10:00) to (12:00)


Michael: Did they learn to ride the subway, navigate by following bus routes, climb apartment fire escapes, or steal paper money for food?  

Mike: Fire escape.

Michael: I am sorry, that is incorrect.  

Mike: Why?  

Michael: Because it's false.

Mike: Someone explain why though.

Hank: Do you know for sure?  Maybe one of them did.  

Mike: Green.  It turns green when you're right.  The table's broke.  

Hank: I'm gonna go with they stole money.  

Michael: That is also incorrect, I'm afraid.

Hank: But that's so good!

Mike: I don't even like the other two.  

Hank: The other two weren't as good.

Michael: They learned how to ride the subway.  

Mike: By getting onto the subway?  Hey, come here, and then they listened and that was the big--no, dogs are different now!

Hank: No one has to tell them to do it.  They do it alright, and then they just duck under the turnstile.

Mike: They just do it, they got the wrong ticket.

Hank: It's good.

Mike: Okay, so now they're criminals.

Michael: Maybe they steal money for the ticket.  

Mike: Yeah, okay.  Alright.  Entertaining.

Olivia: Scientists estimate that there are at least 30,000 dogs in the city of Moscow and at least some of them, maybe a few dozen or so, have learned to navigate the subway.  Honestly, it's probably a good thing they haven't all learned how.  There wouldn't be room for the humans.  One ecologist has suggested that these dogs recognize their stops based on the specific sounds and smells of each platform or even by hearing the name of the route they want to take.  A handful of dogs are even considered commuters and seem to deliberately take trains to food and people-filled areas where they can grab a snack.  As far as scientists can tell, this doesn't necessarily mean the Moscow dogs have evolved any sort of special adaptation.  They're just smart dogs that happen to have figured out a useful trick.  This phenomenon has been observed in other cities around the world, too, although it's definitely most famous and probably most common in Moscow.

Michael: And now for our final round, but not the final question yet.  

Mike: It confused again.

 (12:00) to (14:00)


Michael: Which is called 'We Eat Some Weird Stuff'.  They might seem like a normal part of a balanced diet, but chicken eggs are actually pretty weird.  They come in all kinds of colors, different sizes, and sometimes shapes, and somehow, they contain almost everything you need for a baby chicken.  

Mike: You're a great host (?~12:18)

Michael: Well, thank you.  You're a great contestant. 

(?~12:22)

Michael: Do you wanna--?

Mike: I would like to hear the rest of the question.  

Michael: Not all eggs are created equal, however.  Sometimes, you'll crack one open only to find that it has two yolks instead of one, which is a bonus if you're making an omelette, I guess, but it's also possible to have double shelled eggs.

Hank: I had this happen to me once.  

Michael: If you crack one of these, you'll find a whole separate egg inside, complete with its own shell, yolk, and egg white.

Hank: I think the chicken died.

Mike: Oh no.  

Hank: Giving birth.

Mike: After constructing another shell around itself.  While giving birth, yeah, to a rock, essentially.

Hank: Yeah, it was just like a double-size and it was like, I gotta get this (?~13:01)

Mike: This is my last thing that I wanna do.

Michael: We hope the best for the chicken.

Mike: Sure.

Michael: So what happens inside a chicken to make these rare double shelled eggs?

Hank: I know the answer to this question.

Mike: Me too.  

Michael: The chicken has a gene mutation that codes for double shelled eggs, the egg has a protein mutation that causes another egg--

Hank: Are you trying to read my eyes?

Michael: --to go inside it?

Mike: What was that one?  

Michael: The egg has a protein mutation that causes another egg to grow inside of it, two ova or potential eggs get stuck together in the chicken's ovary, or two eggs merge together on their way out of the chicken?  

Mike: Which one sounds the most interesting to you?  

Hank: You went first!

Mike: The gene mutation one.  

Michael: Unfortunately, that is incorrect.

Mike: This light (?~13:54)

Hank: Yeah, it just keeps turning red.  I mean, so, my understanding, the closest one of my understanding of how this works is the fourth one, the merging together.

 (14:00) to (16:00)


Michael: That is correct.

Hank: Okay.

Olivia: Normally, when a chicken lays an egg, it travels down a tube called an oviduct and then pops out at the end of the bird, but sometimes, a weird series of contractions can cause a partially developed egg (one that already has at least some of its shell) to stop in the middle of the oviduct.  Then, it travels backwards, back to the top of the tube, except by that point, the chicken is already getting ready to push out another egg.  When that new egg enters the oviduct, it runs into the partially developed egg that's just hanging out there, and with nowhere else to go, that egg has no choice but to envelop the other one.  Ultimately, this egg inside an egg comes out the end of the chicken, and someone, somewhere gets a special surprise with their breakfast.

Michael: Okay, we've arrived at our final question, which is one of these things where you can bet any or all of your points on your answer to the next question.

Mike: Sorry, (?~14:57)

Michael: You have 9902 coins.  

Mike: 9000--

Michael: Hank, you have 10200 SciShow bucks.  

Hank: Wow, that's a--that's more than usual, I gotta say.  You gave us an extra like, a lot--

Michael: We were being extra generous today.

Hank: 9000 coins slash SciShow bucks.  

Michael: It's been a good year, Hank.

Hank: Yeah, things are going fine.

Michael: I can tell you that this next question is about milk.  With that in mind, place your bets.  We're gonna go to commercial break or not, because sometimes it doesn't work.

Okay, so these days, people have all kinds of milk preferences about what type they like best.  

Mike: I was going to bring that up as soon as I walked in here.  That's so crazy.

Hank: I just, I don't--I don't need so many kinds of milk.  It's too many choices.  

Michael: I don't know.

Hank: Can somebody just buy my things for me?

Michael: I don't know, man.  

Hank: It's rough.  

Michael: I don't know.  I don't know.

Mike: You guys gonna be okay?

Michael: Back in the 1930s, skim milk, or the kind with most of the fat skimmed off the top, was actually considered a waste product. 

 (16:00) to (18:00)


Many factories dumped their leftover skim milk straight into local rivers.  

Hank : My goodness.  Those poor cows who worked so hard.

Mike: But those well-fed fish.  

Michael: Such healthy bones.  

Mike: That's a durable fish.

Michael: Then, someone came up with a better and more ecofriendly idea: they started taking casein, a common milk protein, and used it for something else.  Was it: they turned the protein into fertilizer, they spun the proteins into fabric, did they feed the casein to the cows to make them extra strong, or did they melt the casein into bricks?

Mike: Wait, how do you melt something into--

Hank: That's not how melting works.

Mike: No.  Read it again.

Michael: Melt the casein into bricks.

Mike: Okay, now it makes more sense.

Michael: Are you guys ready?

Hank: Yeah.

Mike: Sure.

Michael: Show your answers.

Hank: Feed it to the cows, man.  The thing about into the cows.

Michael: You are actually both incorrect.

Hank: Oh, that's terrible news.  That means I lose.

Mike: Oh no, Mario.

Hank: 'Cause I bet all my points but you didn't.

Mike: Yes!  Oh.  Uh-oh!  We have ourselves a situation.  

Michael: The situation is that you're a winner.

Mike: Green!  Yes!  This is great, man, do I get--am I the new Hank now?

Michael: Yes, you have inherited the entirely Complexly/Vidcon empire.

Mike: Oh, this is great.

Michael: Congratulations!

Mike: Somebody tell Missoula they have one Italian person.  Oh, this is great.  

Michael: So uh--

Mike: Mario!

Michael: Yes, on behalf of Mario, you've won SciShow Quiz Show.  

Mike: That's great news.  

Michael: Hank--

Hank: I just felt, apparently really confident and I shouldn't have.  

Mike: Was it the questions or was it the opponent or?

 (18:00) to (19:48)


Hank: It was the milk!  I just feel like I know a lot about milk!

Olivia: The answer is B, they turned the casein into fabric.  Today, casein is used for all kinds of things, including protein supplements, but back in the 1930s, one of the first alternate uses for it was fabric.  The protein was collected from all that leftover skim milk, then dissolved in a chemical-like formaldehyde until it became thick and viscous.  After that, it was processed through a series of machines that turned it into a fiber that could be used for fabric.  Casein fabric was used in everything from clothing to ca upholestery.  It might sound a little weird, but it's not the most ridiculous idea.  Wool is also a protein, although it's mixed in with a few fatty lipids.  Unfortunately, casein wasn't as durable as real wool and it also tended to smell a lot like sour milk after a while, so by the late 1940s, people were kind of over it.  Can't imagine why.  Still, casein fabric might be getting a second life.  In 2011, a German clothing company started making clothing almost entirely out of casein.  Thankfully, though, chemistry has advanced to the point the fabric doesn't have that sour smell anymore.

Hank: I'm looking forward to learning more about that.  

Mike: Go Google it for the rest of the day.  

Michael: Thank you for watching SciShow Quiz Show.  Thanks to all of our Patrons on Patreon.  If you'd like to support the show and you want a chance to be represented on our next Quiz Show, you can go over to Patreon.com/SciShow and check out more of Mike, you can find his YouTube channel at youtube.com/MikeFalzone.  

Hank: Why is there glitter on your face?

Michael: I have no idea.  Probably 'cause I hugged you.

Hank: I don't have glitter on me.

Mike: You know, most glitter is made of milk.  

(Endscreen)