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Einstein’s general theory of relativity was confirmed one hundred years ago today. Go to http://bit.ly/LightFallsSciShow to take a theatrical journey with physicist Brian Greene and explore this discovery in LIGHT FALLS on PBS.

Hank faces off against Minute Physics's Henry Reich in a battle of eccentricities, fashion, and plant puns.
https://www.youtube.com/user/minutephysics

Hosted by: Michael Aranda

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Sources:
Eccentric orbits
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/uranusfact.html
https://www.princeton.edu/~willman/planetary_systems/Sol/Haumea/
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/mercuryfact.html
https://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/asteroidfact.html
https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2012/12/aa19991-12/aa19991-12.html
https://www.sciencenews.org/article/einsteins-genius-changed-sciences-perception-gravity

Baking powder
https://phys.org/news/2014-05-difference-soda-powder.html
https://www.atlasobscura.com/foods/hartshorn
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2579444/

Everything is grass
https://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=40351#null
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/po.htm
http://www.ogtr.gov.au/internet/ogtr/publishing.nsf/content/banana-3/$file/biologybanana08.pdf

Weird, weird frogs
https://amphibiaweb.org/species/2373
https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/08/purple-frog-new-species-discovery-india-monsoon/
https://www.bushheritage.org.au/species/crucifix-frog
https://www.britannica.com/animal/mudskipper

Haterpillar
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782731/

Sneaky beetle
https://bmczool.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40850-016-0010-x
https://blogs.biomedcentral.com/bmcseriesblog/2017/02/10/newly-discovered-beetle-species-travels-back-army-ants/
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Images:
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/alpha-channel-quick-spherical-explosion-1-dmlf95p
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/fabric-bag-isolated-on-white-background-gm1007077176-271753140
https://www.musicradar.com/news/tech/sampleradar-464-free-cartoon-caper-samples-643188
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ceres_-_RC3_-_Haulani_Crater_(22381131691).jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Quaoar_Haumea_Makemake_orbits_2018.png
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/have-a-hart-red-deer-stag-gm172387616-4422697
https://tinyurl.com/y3tpcadd
https://tinyurl.com/y2lnqbmw
https://tinyurl.com/y33ceqtz
https://tinyurl.com/y5m7qz8r
https://tinyurl.com/y3cseta9
https://tinyurl.com/yxbmhdpp
https://tinyurl.com/y26ohovy
https://tinyurl.com/y3rja9ne
https://www.inaturalist.org/photos/15409540
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Purple_frog_mating_by_Nihal_Jabin.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Schlammspringer_Periophthalmus_sp.jpg
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Notaden_bennettii.JPG
https://www.inaturalist.org/photos/15409543
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3917828/
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/gaint-mudskipper-gm943602488-257805287
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/insect-caterpillar-cartoon-vector-illustration-gm613305194-105848931
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/red-carpet-in-bluish-flashy-lights-with-curtain-gm148429679-19551174
https://www.istockphoto.com/vector/fashion-magazine-cover-gm912944548-251320445
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782731/figure/fig-1/
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Uraba_lugens1.jpg
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4782731/#supp-3
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nymphister_kronaueri.jpg
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/army-ant-eciton-sp-in-their-nest-or-bivouac-in-the-rainforest-ecuador-4wm2vzf3xild8bdr3
https://www.videoblocks.com/video/army-ants-eciton-sp-on-a-tree-stump-in-western-ecuador-v5zuxwzheild7ncdr
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:N._kronaueri_on_army_ant.gif
https://freesound.org/people/waxsocks/sounds/254836/

 (00:00) to (02:00)


Thanks to Light Falls on PBS for supporting this episode.  Light Falls premieres on May 29th at 10PM on PBS.  Go to pbs.org/lightfalls to learn more.

(Intro)

Michael: It's time for SciShow Quiz Show, the only quiz show hosted by me immediately after eating a bunch of Mexican food.  Ooh.  

Hank: Chipotle.

Michael: In this corner, we have our resident Floridian who is still managing to thrive in all this snow, Hank Green.  

Hank: My nose hurts.  

Michael: And Hank is competing against Henry Reich, the brains and artist behind MinutePhysics and MinuteEarth.  After more than four years, he's back for another Quiz Show.  

Henry: It took that long.

Hank: How did you do last time?  

Henry: I think you lost.  I didn't win, but you lost is my recollection.

Michael: Last time, Henry won approximately 400 to 0.  

Hank: Sounds like we both did pretty bad.  

Michael: As a thank you to our supporters on Patreon, we've selected two of you at random to win some prizes.  Hank, you're playing for Margaret Sy.

Hank: Hello, Margaret.

Michael: And Henry, you're playing for Alex Ciminian.  

Henry: Hello, Alex.  

Michael: Stefan, show our contestants what they can go home with today.

Stefan: Hello!  Come with me!  Let's go this way!  Where to, you ask?  Well, it's the prize zone!  Alright, let's get down to business.  Alex and Margaret, you're not gonna have to fight over the autographed wager cards from our final round today, because we've got two of those, but you're gonna have to duke it out to find out who's gonna get the extremely shiny 'I Won SciShow Quiz Show' pin and one tote bag full of SciShow swag from DFTBA.com, though we don't actually have any tote bags, so moving on.  If you're the contestant with the least points at the end of the show, you'll still be the recipient of a slightly less shiny, but very distinguished looking 'I Lost SciShow Quiz Show' pin, except it's not actually less shiny at all, because they were both forged from the same button maker.  Alright, you've seen enough.  Now get outta my zone!

Michael: Thank you, Stefan.  You both start out with 1,000 points.  Each time you choose a correct answer, you'll win some.  If you're wrong, you lose some.

 (02:00) to (04:00)


Henry: That makes the 400 points sound pretty bad, doesn't it?

Michael: Our first category is eccentric science.  Here's the first question.  Most things don't orbit the sun in a perfect circle.  Instead, their orbits have some degree of eccentricity.  In other words, they're somewhat oval shaped.  The question is, although there are more eccentric orbits out there, which one of these four objects has the most eccentric orbit: Mercury, Uranus, the dwarf planet Haumea, the dwarf planet Ceres?  

Hank: I'm gonna go with with Haumea.  That's--aughh, I got it wrong.  

Henry: The light stays on.

Hank: Well, it does eventually go off if you hit it right.

Henry: I'm gonna guess the other dwarf planet.  

Hank: Ceres?

Michael: That is also incorrect.

Hank: Also--is it Uranus?  

Michael: It is Mercury.

Hank: Oh my God.  That's not what I would have expected at all.

Henry: I mean, I guess, like, Einstein did--they tested the (?~2:53) of Mercury, so it must have some (?~2:57)

 (04:00) to (06:00)


because of how all these factors play together, there's even a chance that its orbit could get so eccentric that it crosses venus's orbit.
if that happens it probably won't be for hundreds of millions of years though and statistically speaking, that also likely doesn't mean those planets are ever going to collide. but it just goes to show how would normal doesn't mean that much in the solar system.

Michael: our next question is about eccentric baking ingredients except this time it's not an offecial term,
baking powder is used to puff up various breads and pastries, in a pich you can make your own by combining baking soda with some cream of tartar.
but for hundreds of years, cooks used something else
what was their baking powder substitute?
a)charcoal
b)pine needles
c)deer antlers ,or
d)chicken feathers

Henry:I'm gonna guss charcoal
Michael:I'm sorry Henry
Hank: I feel like I'm doing a lot of guessing right now, hundreds of years huh, what did we have for hundreds of years?
Michael: Is there any scishow quizshow where we're not just guessing the whole way through
Hank: what did you say is it hundreds or thousands?
Michael:hundreds
Hank: okay we've had chicken feathers for hundreds of years and deer antlers, we've had all those things for hundreds of years
I feel like deer antlers
Michael: you're correct!
Hank:yaaaay! I just felt like it
Henry: what's the leavening agent in deer antlers?
Hank: calcium something.. it's just bones

Using deer antlers to puff up your bread seems pretty weird, but bakers used to do it all the time.
they called it hartshorn. and chemically speaking it totally makes sense.
commercial baking powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate aka baking soda along with two powderized acids
when these acids become wet or are exposed to heat, like from the oven, they react and create bubbles  that make everything all soft and fluffy
hartshorn does something similar
when you grind it up and heat it, it creates ammonia and carbon dioxide

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