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Hank squares off against the host of SciShow Kids, Jessi Knudsen Castaneda, to match wits about chemistry, evolution, and how babies are weird!
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(SciShow theme plays)

Michael Aranda: Ladies and gentlemen welcome to Sci Show Quiz Show, the only show that you're watching, right now. Today we have internet hotshot Hank Green.

Hank: Hey, what's up? That was great, I really liked that intro. We should use that every time.

Micheal: We also have host of Sci Show Kids and Animal Wonders Jessi Knudsen Castañeda. Whoo!

Jessi: You did it! (claps)

Michael: (clears throat) anyway, Hank, you'll be playing on behalf of CJ Spahr.

Hank: Hi CJ!

Michael: Jessi you have SR Foxley.

Jessi: Foxley, yes! Yes!

Hank: SR Foxley is all up in the SciShow.

Jessi: I'm gonna work really hard, I studied this time which meant--

Hank: You studied!?

Jessi: --I read through all of my Facebook feed.

Hank: (laughs) I studied last night on Tumblr! If that's studying, then I did it a lot.

Jessi: Uh-huh.

Michael: So both of our contestants start out with 1000 SciShow points.

Jessi: Yes!

Michael: Each time you answer correctly, you'll win some number of points, probably 100. If you get a question wrong or you don't answer, you lose 100. Whoever has the most at the end of all this wins some kind of special prize that Stefan is going to show us right now.

Stefan: Well, Michael, both SR and CJ will be taking home autographed cards from Hank and Jessi with their final guesses and wagers on them, as well as either an "I won SciShow Quiz show" pin or the highly sought-after "I Lost SciShow Quiz Show" pin, a fancy-schmancy out-of-print Hank Green CD, signed by the man himself, and the winner will also take home a copy of the script from this episode, plus a slice of Pizza John swag. Good luck CJ and SR, and back to you, Michael.

 Round 1: Chemistry (1:40)

Michael: OK, are you guys ready for round one?

Both: Yes.

Michael: It's all about chemistry.

Hank: Oh, I'm good--

Jessi: So not fair.

Hank: Sorta not fair.

Michael: Sorta not fair. (all laughs) Someone here has a degree in chemistry-related things.

Hank: And someone doesn't.

Michael: Yeah. (laughs)

Jessi: The next round better be about animals. Just saying.

Michael: We'll see. OK, these first three are true or false questions.

Hank: OK.

Michael: True or false: If you pour salt into a glass of water, the level of the water will go down instead of up.

Hank: (buzzes) True.

Michael: You are correct. (laughing)

Hank: It's not really-- not fair.

Jessi: I'll just sit over here for a while.

Michael: The volume of a salt solution is actually smaller than the separate volumes of the water and salt put together, This is partly because when the salt dissolves, it dissociates into ions which take up less space than when they're bonded together.

It also has to do with the fact that water is a highly polar molecule, so the ions from the dissolved salt are drawn to the positive and negative ends of the water molecules. When the particles pull together, the solution as a whole takes up less space. The decrease in volume is barely perceptible though, only about 2%.

OK. True or false: As of 2015, the letter "Q" does not appear in the periodic table of elements.

Jessi: (buzzes)I'm gonna lose points anyway, so I'm gonna say false.

Michael: You are incorrect.

Hank: Yeah, I can't find it anywhere. I had to think though.

Michael: The letter "Q" did briefly appear in 1998 after element 114 was discovered, but not officially named. So for 14 year the element was known only as ununquadium, which basically just meant one-one-four-ium, and was abbreviated as UUQ.

But in 2012 the element was given the official name of Flerovium in honor of Russian physicist Georgy Flyorov, so "Q" ended its tenure in the table. For the record, the letter "J" also does not appear anywhere on the periodic table.

OK. True or false: mercury is the only element that is liquid at room temperature.

Hank: (buzzes) False.

Michael: You are correct!

Hank: (laughing) I was like "What just happened? I'm right!"

Michael: Mercury is a famously liquid metal, but the element bromine is also liquid under room temperature conditions. It's pungent, and corrosive, and is usually found in nature in the form of bromide salts.

Jessi: (sighs)

Michael: So now--

Jessi: Are we done? Are we don with this round?

Michael: Yeah, so now that we've finished the "free points for Hank" round, let's move onto round two.

 Round 2: Weird facts about humans (3:55)

Michael: Question one: we've said it before, and we'll say it again: "humans did not evolve from apes." Instead, humans and other apes evolved from a common primate ancestor some 8-10 billion years ago. From that ancestor, many different lineages diverged. Some leading to the apes we know today as chimps, gorillas, and orangutans, some leading to humans and human ancestors like Australopithecus, neanderthals, and homo sapiens.

What has flummoxed some scientists, though, is that the fossil record has so far revealed way more fossils of some apes than others. In fact, only one kind of non-human ape has been found frequently in the fossil record. What type is it? Orangutans, bonobos, gorillas, or chimpanzees?

Hank: I do not know the answer. (buzzes)

Jessi: Wow.

Hank: I'm gonna say bon-- borangutans.

Michael: Hmm. borangutans is correct. (all laugh)

Jessi: Almost said bonobo! Almost.

Hank: I did. I feel like there's just more orangutans in the world. That's just how I feel.

Michael: It's all about how you feel here on SciShow.

Hank: On the show about facts.

Jessi: Hmmm.

Michael: Orangutans relatives are best represented apes in the fossil record, with several orang fossils having been found, mostly in Asia, since the 1800s. By contrast, no fossils related to chimps or gorillas were discovered at all until the 2000s, and even then, they're mostly just teeth. Scientists attribute this to the fact that orangutans diverged early on from African apes, and dispersed more widely, moving on to climates where the environment favored better fossil formation. Biologists believe orangutans evolved from apes living in either India or China, whereas chimps and gorillas originated in Africa, mostly in dense rainforests with acidic soils where fossil preservation was less likely.

As scientists have studied human evolution, they've noticed some trends; ways in which we've become increasingly different from our ape-like ancestors. With that in mind, which of these is not a trend in human evolution? Our faces have gotten flatter, males and females have become closer in size, our rib cages have grown wider at the bottom than the top, or we have smaller teeth.

Jessi: Gonna give me a chance?

Hank: Yeah.

Jessi: (buzzes) I'm gonna say the rib cages.

Michael: You are correct!

Jessi: Yessssss!

Hank: OH! I was gonna get that wrong!

Jessi: I should have let him lose points.

Hank: Well I lose points anyway.

Michael: Well, he loses points anyway.

Hank: I know!

Jessi: Oh, OK. Works out. (laughs) Yes! You lose points finally.

Hank: Oh, that's interesting.

Jessi: I'm sorry I'm so happy about that.

Michael: Our rib cages have actually become more cylindrical or barrel shaped and less triangular over time. Earlier, more ape-like hominins had rib cages that were shaped like an inverted funnel, narrow at the top and wide at the bottom. Biologists believe this was to make room for the larger gut that was required to process an all-plant diet. But as hominins became more omnivorous, the body shape changed to allow more calories to be processed in less space, leading to a barrel shaped rib cage.

All of the other patterns I mentioned have been observed in evolutionary history. Human faces have become flatter, teeth have gotten smaller and males and females are much closer in average size than they used to be.

Now for question 3 in round 2.

Hank: OK.

Michael: Which is a round about...

Hank: Great apes.

Michael: Apey-- apey things. There's one substance that great apes tolerate well that monkeys can't. Our tolerance for the substance is thought by some evolutionary biologists to have enabled us to adapt to life on the ground instead of trees. What is that substance? Is it the milk of other animals, caffeine, ethanol, or nicotine.

Hank: Wow. Interesting. Hmm. (Hank and Michael grunt and grumble) (buzzes) I have no idea.

Jessi: That's your answer?

Michael: Incorrect! (all laugh)

Hank: No, I'm gonna answer something. Um, I'll say... caffeine.

Michael: Wrong.

Hank: OK well at least I'm wrong.

Jessi: Do I have a chance?

Michael: You have a chance!

Hank: Yeah, you have a chance.

Jessi: (buzzes) I'm gonna say ethanol.

Michael: You are correct! (cheers)

Hank: I guess that makes-- I don't know cuz like-- maybe if all the fruits fall down and-- you're gonna tell us aren't you.

Michael: I'm about to tell you right now.

Like humans, chimps and gorillas can tolerate moderate amounts of ethanol, otherwise known as alcohol, because we have the same variant of a gene known as ADH4. That gene produces enzymes that break down ethanol to keep it from building up in the blood stream. Tree-dwelling primates, however, like monkeys and lemurs, don't have the same version of this gene, so they can't metabolize alcohol. Without the ability to break it down, the alcohol quickly accumulates in their blood making them drunk and sick in no time.

And biologists believe that our genetic tolerance for alcohol allowed our early ground-dwelling ancestors to take advantage of a unique food source: rotten, fermented fruit. By exploiting this plentiful food source on the ground without getting sick, apes may have become better suited to living on land, and probably had a good time doing it.

 Round 3: Final Leopardy/ Babydy (8:30)

So, we've finally reached round three which at Hank's request we are now calling Final Leopardy--

Hank: I don't know that we should because now I'm afraid that people are gonna think it's about leprosy.

Jessi: Which is what I thought.

Hank: I wanted it to be about leopards!

Jessi: Which is what I should have thought.

Michael: Which has nothing to do with what the question is--

Hank: OK.

Jessi: Wow.

Michael: The question is about weird facts about babies. So go ahead and bet some points--

Hank: Final Babydy.

Michael: This is final Babydy. Go ahead and bet some points. We'll be right back after these commercial... things.

Hank: What does a baby look like?

Michael: Are you serious? (all laugh)

Hank: No.

Jessi: Just draw some round circles and put glasses on it, it'll be baby Hank.

Hank: Yeah, I was thinking round circles... as opposed to square circles.

Michael: Hank, currently has 1000 babies.

Hank: We've decided that points are babies this round.

Jessi: And it's terrible.

Hank: That is a-- incorrect number of babies.

Michael: Jessi currently has 600 babies.

Jessi: That's more rational.

Hank: No, not-- I mean, once you get to a certain point, it doesn't matter anymore.

Michael: Both irrational. So babies in particular, scientifically speaking are just nutty. They're born with more bones than we have, they're sick all the time and they can literally smell a pair of lactating breasts from across the room--

Jessi: Awesome.

Michael: but, what is one thing that babies cannot do? Sweat, shiver, snore, or sneeze?

Jessi: Babies at what age?

Michael: Newborn babies. Newborn baby humans.

Jessi: OK.

Hank: They cannot do one of those things.

Michael: Yes.

Hank: (grunts)

Jessi: I don't have any room left.

Hank: Yeah, you drew too many babies?

Michael: Drew too many babies. Why does that baby have a tail?

Jessi: I told you, I have trouble drawing babies. (laughs)

Michael: OK.

Hank: That's creepy.

Jessi: Sorry. (all laugh)

Hank: No, not you. I just-- I wrote this like I was trying to be a small child and I just made it look like--

Michael: Oh, yeah, that looks like a horror movie. Good job. Ave we ready to reveal our answers.

Jessi: Uh-huh.

Hank: Yeah.

Michael: You are both correct!

Jessi: It is scary-looking. It looks like you were shivering while you wrote it.

Hank: Well, that was part of it and I wanted to make it look like a small child wrote it, but it is super creepy, I don't know how it turned out so creepy.

Michael: (in a creepy voice) Shiver.

Jessi: Oh, I thought I was reading that backwards.

Hank: 201 babies.

Jessi: That looks like-- THAT looks like a ninja turtle!

Hank: With a belly button.

Michael: Newborns are capable of sweating, snoring, and sneezing, but they can't shiver. Physicians think it's because babies' muscle tissue isn't developed enough, so instead, babies keep warm by burning fat. Specifically, a type of body fat called brown fat. That's why so called "baby fat" is so important to the health and comfort of newborns, and why it's also important to keep the little ones warm.

OK, OK. Hank has 1201 points, beating Jessi by one point!

Jessi: Yeah, but my baby's cuter than his.

Michael: Sorry Foxley.

Hank: CJ! Your baby is cuter than mine. Your baby is a cat, though, so that helps. Is it a fox? No, you should draw a fox.

Jessi: No, I will draw a fox for Foxley.

Hank: OK.

Jessi: Oh god.

Michael: Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Quiz Show, be sure to check out Animal Wonders and SciShow kids where you can find Jessi and head on over to to subscribe.

Hank: Yeah.

Jessi: Whoo!

Hank: Thanks CJ.

Jessi: Foxley! Sorry.

Hank: (laughs)

Michael: I thought you said something else. (all laugh)