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Welcome to SciShow Quiz Show, where SciShow Space co-hosts Hank and Reid are back for another round!

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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[intro music]

Michael: Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, welcome to SciShow Quiz Show, the only quiz show on the internet where I'm the shortest one.
Hank: Sorry about that. 
Reid: Sorry. 
Hank: Could have made your hair go a little higher. 
Reid: It's not too late.
Michael: I just got a haircut. 
I'm your host Michael Aranda and today we've got a rematch between internet hotshot Hank Green, and uh, really tall guy Reid Reimers. 
Reid: With pig shirt. 
Hank: It's a creepy pig. 
Michael: With pig shirt. 
Reid: It has human teeth. 
Hank: Oh yeah. Well, you know that or do pigs just have very human like teeth?
Reid: They don't have human teeth. 
Hank: You know a lot about pigs. I might be in trouble!
Reid: If there's a pig question. 

Michael: Well, Reid, you'll be playing for Carolyn Wolfram.
Reid: Okay. Carolyn. 
Michael: Hank you are playing for two people today.
Hank: Oh!
Michael: Sean McLennan and Jason Archibald.
Hank: I will let you both down. Or, possibly not. I'll try not to. 
Michael: So the rules are if you answer a question correctly, you'll get some number of points, and whoever has the most points by the end of the game gets to go home with some special DFTBA merch. 
Hank: Well we don't. It's the people we're playing for. 
Michael: People for whom you are playing. 
Hank: Yes. 
Reid: Yeah. 
Michael: Stefan, what can our contestants take home today?

Stefan: Thanks Michael! The loser of today's SciShow Quiz Show will take home the coveted "I lost at SciShow Quiz Show" pin and the autographed score card that cost them the game.
And today's winner will take home the "I won SciShow Quiz Show" pin, the autographed score card that won the game, and a surprise assortment of DFTBA merchandise. 

 Round 1

Michael: So for round number one, we'll start off with something appropriate for our two SciShow hosts. You want me to throw the microphone? Is that what- oh okay. There it goes. Gone forever. Uh, so for the first round we're gonna start off uh with one thousand points each. 
Hank: Okay. 
Reid: Cool. 
Hank: I'm leaving now cause I always end with less than that. 
Michael: And the topic of our first round is spaaacccceee. 
Hank: Spaaaccee. 
Reid: Spppaaaacccceee!

Michael: Okay. Look around the solar system and you'll find all kinds of different bodies. Planets, dwarf planets, moons, and lots of asteroids and comets. These objects are sometimes classified by the composition or size, but sometimes, they're classified by how weird their orbits are. 
Hank: Okay. 
Michael: There's a special type of body that's found only between Jupiter and Neptune. It probably came from a different, more stable orbit somewhere else in the solar system, but got tangled in the gas giants' orbits as they were passing through. Today, they're known to astronomers by the name of a mythical creature. Are these objects called: A. unicorns, B. maticores, C. griffins, or D. centaurs?
Hank: You know I thought I knew the answer to this question but I sure don't. 
Reid: I thought it was chimeras. Uh, I'll go for uhh, centaurs. 
Michael: Hm. You are correct. 
Reid: Yay! Woo!
Hank: Oh man!

Michael: The answer is D. centaurs. Centaurs get their name because they behave like a cross between an asteroid and a comet. We don't know whether the centaurs start out as asteroids, which usually orbit between the sun and Jupiter, or comets, which spend most of their time in deep space. Some centaurs, like one called Chiron, actually has the same type of coma, or cloudy envelope that a comet does, so they're classified as both asteroids and comets. 

Reid: Blind guessing!
Michael: So that's a hundred points for Reid, it's minus a hundred points to Hank. 
Hank: What I get nothing 
Reid: That's how it works?
Hank: Yeah you gotta guess or you-
Reid: Okay.
Hank: You lose points no matter what. 
Reid: Pull it together Hank. 
Hank: I don't know why they didn't just give you two hundred points. It's mathematically the same. But it wouldn't hurt as bad. 
Michael: Another odd thing about the centaurs is their colors are so distinct, from what we can tell, some of them red, others are blue, and we haven't found any in the middle ground. This has a lot to do with round number two. 
Hank: Okay.

 Round 2

Michael: Colors! (3:39)
Hank: I like colors.
Michael: The first question in this round is about the whole entire universe, so I hope you're prepared for that. In 2002, astronomers averaged together all of the light from 200,000 different galaxies, and normally if you combine all of the colors of visible light, you get pure white, but the universe has more of some colors than others,  and when researchers found the average color of the universe, it wasn't exactly white. What was it? A. beige-
Hank: *buzz* Yes. A. Beige.
Michael: You are correct.
Hank: Yes! A. beige! Negative one hundred!
Michael: The other-
Reid: Yeah, but that works us back to where we started, okay? Let's just let's just make this okay. 

Michael: The answer is A, beige. If I'd asked you this question a few billion years ago the answer would actually be some shade of blue because younger stars tend to be bluer. But as the universe has aged, more of the stars are yellow, so the average color of all of the stars is more of a lightish brown. Eventually the color will shift to red -- the color of the oldest, longest lasting stars.

 Round 2

Michael: Uh, speaking of yellow... ahem gold, the metal, not the color, is something we humans consider pretty valuable, plus it's useful in things like dentistry and electronics, but when you get down to the nanoscale, we're talking a billionth of a meter - 
Hank: Okay
Michael: - things get pretty weird and it's properties can change a lot. Gold nanoparticles are first manufactured as a liquid solution. But when they dry, they absorb longer wavelengths of light. So what color are dried gold nanoparticles? Are they A) Bright Orange, B) Gold, C) Purple, or D) Green. 

(Reid buzzes) 

Reid: Imma go for purple. 
Hank: Mmm that's gotta be wrong. 
Michael: You are correct! 
Reid: YEAAH!
Hank: Oh man you are so good at this!

Michael: The answer is C) Purple. Normally gold is well, gold colored because the metal reflects nearly all visible light, though it does absorb a little bit of blue and red which is why it looks yellow. But when tiny particles of gold are dispersed in a solution, they reflect the red part of the spectrum. And when they dry, they clump together and the wavelengths of light they absorb shift. The clumps absorb the longer, redder wavelengths of light and reflect the shorter blue ones so they look purplish.

Michael: You get a hundred points! Congratulations.
Reid: Thanks. 
Michael: You lose a hundred points. Congratulations. 
Hank: Man... 

 Round 3

Michael: Okay?
Reid: Okay. 
Michael: For our next question let's talk about BLOOD. (Reid groans)
Michael: Blood does lots of things but its main purpose in the animal kingdom usually involves transporting oxygen. Since different chemicals can connect with oxygen and carry it around, blood can be all kinds of different colors. With that in mind, which of these is not a color of blood found in the animal kingdom? 
Hank: Ooo! 
Michael: Is it A) Black, B) Blue, C) Green, or D) Colorless

(Reid buzzes)

Reid: Imma go for green. 
Michael: ...You're wrong
Reid: Awwww
Hank: Do I... I have to answer in order to not lose points. That's how this works. 
Michael: Yeah probably. 
Hank: I'm gonna go (buzz) (buzz) with black!
Michael: You are correct! 
Hank: Hey!

Michael: The answer is A) Black. Lots of different animals from octopuses to certain spiders have blue blood. That's because where our blood uses iron-based hemoglobin to bind to and transport oxygen, blue blood contains copper-based hemocyanin instead, and hemocyanin is blue.

But blood comes in green too. One genus of skinks has green blood... and green bones. Found in Papua New Guinea they're commonly called green-blooded skinks for a reason. They aren't secretly Vulcan, their blood just contains a lot of biliverdin, the compound that's responsible for the green color of human bruises. It's also in their bones and muscles.

And it turns out that some animals don't need any of these colorful compounds to transport oxygen, like the Antarctic icefish. In 1928, a zoologist found a very odd-looking fish off the coast of Antarctica. And when he cut it open he found that its blood was transparent. Researchers eventually learned that this icefish's blood doesn't contain any hemoglobin, hemocyanin or even red blood cells. It just transports oxygen dissolved in its blood plasma But so far, we haven't discovered any species with truly black blood. 

 Round 4

Michael: Okay, we are moving on to our final round which is that one time when you guys, like...(7:25)
Hank: Get to bid.
Michael: some points and stuff. The topic of this round is animal defense mechanism. Hank has 1000 points, Reid has 1000 points, it is neck and neck. You guys can bet anywhere between 0 and 1000 on your answer to this next question. Again the topic is animal defense mechanisms.
Reid: Do we... We pick our points now?
Michael: Yes, while you do that we are going to go to commercial break. 

Michael: Welcome back! You guys ready?
Reid: Yes.
Michael: Animal defense mechanisms. If any of us were to meet an angry bear in the woods, our instincts might be to try to fight it or run away, but other animals get a little more creative with their defenses. Usually these fall into one of two categories: Morphological defenses, which are bodily adaptations, and behavioral defenses, which affect how the animal acts. The behavioral ones include things like living in groups, even though that means there's extra competition for resources. But the morphological ones tend to be more unique. Here are four morphological defense mechanisms, but one of them is made up. Which one of these is not a real way that animals defend themselves? A. Breaking it's own bones to form claws, B. Launching it's feces two meters, C.
Hank: No more or less!
[all laugh]
Reid: One Reid length actually!
Hank: Exactly this [gestures to Reid] far.
Michael: C. Shooting blood out of it's eye, or D. spitting out it's venomous teeth?
Hank: Oh! Oh! Oh!
Michael: Oh my.
Hank: Do you...
Michael: Reid seems very confident over there.
Reid: Just fake it 'til you make it, I have no idea.
Hank: I also do not know. I know that a couple of those are things that actually happen. So I have a 50/50 chance.
Reid: I know a couple of them.
Michael: Okay, let's reveal our answers.
Hank: That was the other one I was going to guess. 42?! That one was a thousand.
Reid: Well, yeah, I thought you'd lose, even if then I lost, I'd still win.
Michael: Well, Hank, you are correct.
Michael: 2000 points for Hank. We've got, what, 958?
Reid: Yeah, which I still think is pretty good.
Hank: It's good. It's less than half of what I have.
Michael: It's not the lowest score we've seen here on SciShow Quiz Show.
Reid: What breaks it's bones to make claws? That's bananas!
Michael: Well, I'm sure I'm about to tell everybody.
Hank: Who spits out teeth?
Reid: Are you about to tell them right now?
Michael: The answer is D. Spitting out it's venomous teeth. When attacked the Hairy Frog will turn it's toe bones into claws by contracting a muscle that breaks them. Than it forces the sharp tips out through it's skin, and you know, swipes. Scientists aren't sure where the claws go afterward, though they think that the bones probably just slide back in afterward and eventually heal. As far as poo flinging creatures, some caterpillars can launch their poop up to two meters. It takes the form of these little pellets called frass. Which first just sit there on a little pad inside of them. Then they build up blood pressure beneath the pad to spring the frass away from them. And that's important for these caterpillars because wasps are attracted to the smell of caterpillar poop, so getting the stuff as far away from them as possible is a useful trick. And for shooting blood out of their eyes, some species of Horned Lizard will respond to threats by increasing blood flow to their heads and stopping it from leaving. Eventually, blood vessels around their eyelids break and the blood streams for up to 1.5 meters. And finally, while there are animals that spit out venom, none of them actually spit out their teeth.
Reid: Fascinating. 
Michael: Yeah, yeah, I'm glad I explained that so well for everybody.
Hank: Whooo! I win! For you, people whose names I've forgotten. 
Reid: Sorry Ms. Wolfland.
Hank: Wolfram.
Reid: That's what I said. 
Michael: Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Quiz Show. If you want to see more of Reid, you can go to SciShow Space. Also we reach $25,000 a month on Patreon, we're sending Reid to space camp.
Reid: I really want to go to space camp! I'm really excited to go to space camp!
Michael: So help us make that happen. Don't forget to go to and subscribe.
Hank: Bye.
Reid: Bye.

[closing music and credits]