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With VidCon Australia just around the corner, Julia Maes, Executive Producer of VidCon International, faces off against Hank Green on the SciShow Quiz Show, answering questions about Australian things and earning prizes for Patreon patrons!

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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The Moon:


Oxidative stress:


 (00:00) to (02:00)


M: Hello everybody and welcome to SciShow Quiz Show! Where real smart people test their knowledge about real kinds of science and win prizes for two of our supporting patrons on patreon. 

H: You are confirmed real smart person.

J: Thank you


J: Aww.. 

M: Oh no injury on set.

H: Did I hurt you? 

J: No i just was disappointed on how bad that high-five was.

H: I thought it's it no one would have known, if you hadn't said anything. 

J: I know in my heart. I can't lie to these people. 

M: I'm your host: Michael Aranda. And today our contestants are executive producer for VidCon International, but also a secretly talented science poet Julia Maes. 

H: Ooh.

J: I didn't even know that about myself. 

M: Going up against Hank Green who hasn't yet published any science poetry that we know of but has written some excellent music about science

H: Yes. Sure. I mean what's the difference really between a poem and a song?

M: Meh...

J: Later. 

H You want do you have opinions on that?

J: Yeah I do but not now. 

H: Oh, I don't. 

M: Okay. As a special thank you to our supporters on patreon, we've selected two of you at random to win some prizes. Hank you will be playing for Melanie Rowland. 

H: Hello Melanie. 

M: Julia you are playing for Alex Tomlinson.

J: Hi Alex Tomlinson.

M: Stefan, show our contestants what they could win today.

S: Melanie and Alex y'all are in for a treat. You will both be taking home the sign cards from our final round with our contestants final guesses and wagers on them. The winner will also receive the I won SciShow Quiz Show pin and some top secret swag from, but the loser of today's quiz show will of course receive the extra special made with care and love I lost SciShow Quiz Show pin. Good luck contestants and back to you Michael.

M: Okay, you guys ready?

J: Mmhmm.

M: You both start off with 1000 SciShow bucks.

J: Okay.

M: Everytime you answer a question correctly you will win 200 points. 

 (02:00) to (04:00)

M: If you answer incorrectly you lose 100 points

H: So by points do you mean SciShow bucks?

M: Yeah they are interchangeable one-to-one currency exchange

J: Do you ask that question every episode?

H: No no he never says points


H: *Incoherent mumbling*

M: we just use different units of measurements for points every yeah every time.

J: Good

H: Yeah next time you should just say beans

M: Okay so you both have one thousand beans

J: Oh great

H: Beans is actually like a thing that people say for money, right? Anybody?

S: You can't keep saying beans... It'll make me laugh too much 

H: Sam's having a hard time with beans.

M: Okay, since the first ever Vid Con Australia is coming up in September, now seems like a good time to test your knowledge of Australian wildlife. 

J: Okay

M: So that's the topic of our first round

H: Non placental mammals.

M: You'll often hear people talking about how Australia is home to the world's deadliest spiders and snakes.

H: Oh. Not mammals.

M: But even if you manage to avoid those there are plenty of other super dangerous animals to worry about down under. Like the box jellyfish. A few species of box jelly fish have some of the most deadly venom in the world and they just so happen to lve in the oceans around Australia as well as the rest of the Indo-pacific.

H: Okay

M: Jellyfish stings in Australia are serious business and a lot of beaches have first aid stations where you can grab something to put on the sting. There's some evidence that this stuff prevents stinging cells from releasing more venom. The question is: what should you put on a box jelly fish sting? Vinegar, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol or aloe.

J: Aloe

M: I'm afraid that is incorrect

J: uh

H: I'm gonna try too, vinegar.

M: That is correct.

H: Yay!

J: Noo

All: hahaha

H: I feel like i did that. Like I got stung by a Portuguese man-of-war once. 

J: Ih!

M: Oh!

H: Is very painful and I think that we did pour vinegar on it.

 (04:00) to (06:00)

M: Hmm

H: So maybe i had first hand experience but maybe not. I've been alive for so long, I have no idea what actually happened and what I just made up. 

J: How old are you? What do you mean 'so long'?

H: I don't know, for a long time. Ypu don't know the half of it.

J: No I guess I don't.

M: When a jellyfish stings special parts of their cells called Nematocysts shoot out a bunch of harpoon lke structures that release venom. Considering people get about a hundred and fifty million jellyfish stings a year and some can be deadly you'd think there would be a fair amount of research on how to treat them But it's kind of hard to convince people to voluntarily get stung by a jellyfish so scientists have a tough time doing the kinds of controlled trials they'd usually use in medical research. even so there's pretty clear evidence that some popular home remedies like pouring urine or alcohol on a sting or detached tentacle don't help at all. The evidence that vinegar helps isn't that conclusive but researchers think acetic acid can deactivate nematocysts that haven't shot their harpoons yet in some kinds of jellyfish. Including box jellyfish. 
Okay, enough about Australia's terrifying animals. The next question is about adorable ones, koalas. One big problem facing koalas right now is that there's been a massive outbreak of chlamydia.

H: Dudes, use protection.

M: They get symptoms like pink eye, chest infections and something called wet bottom where they can't control their bladders.

H: Aw, I got wet bottom. Aw, poor koalas they're just peeing all the time. You know they poop in their sleep?

M: I didn't know that.

H: Thats not - They're supposed to. 

M: Okay. Not chlamydia related.

H: No

M: Just

H: Yeah, Their metabolisms are so slow that they sleep so much that sometimes they're just like: (sleep noise) (poop noise) (sleep noise ) (poop noise)

J: So not that different from humans. 

M+H: hahahaha

H: You poop in your sleep Julie?

J: Babies do.

H: I can confirm.

J: Great

M: So anyway, chlamydia can also cause infertility which has led to a big decline in the koala population. These days about 70% of koalas have chlamydia although the koalas in some areas have it mush worse than in others.

 (06:00) to (08:00)

M: With that in mind from 2004 to 2011 more than 4,000 female koalas in a national park in Victoria had hormonal birth control implanted in them. What was the problem? They were infected with chlamydia, which they would have passed to their babies. They were infected with chlamydia, & the contraceptive would help clear their symptoms. They weren't infected with chlamydia, & their population was growing too quickly as a result. they were infected with koala retrovirus, which would have made their babies more vulnerable to chlamydia.

H: Hmm. 

J: Mmmm

H: I'm gonna go with that last one cuz it's real weird. 

M: That is incorrect. 

H: It turned red. the table turned red, Michael.

M: Yeah, that means you're wrong.

J: I'm gonna go with the first one.

M: that is also incorrect I'm afraid.

H: Aayyyyy

M: Apparently

J: I'm not good at this game.

M: They weren't infected at all and the population was rowing too quickly.

H: I thought that that was definitely wrong.

M: Yeah

J: Tell us more.

M: The chlamydia outbreak has affected most populations of koalas in Australia but it hasn't spread to koalas in Mount Ecols National Park. The problem is even though koalas as a species are in decline the koalas at Mount Echols have it too easy. Without chlamydia to hold them back the population exploded and long-term that was really bad news for the koalas. See, the forest only has 2 types of trees: Manna Gum and Black Wood trees. Koalas were living on and eating the Manna Gum trees and unless Parks Victoria, which runs the park, did something there would be a massive die off of the trees and then a massive die off of the koalas. Parks Victoria didn't want to just kill a bunch of koalas s in 1999 they tried relocating about 4,000 of them to other forests in Victoria but that wasn't enough to control the population so then they tried giving another 4300 koalas hormonal contraceptives. By 2013 the koala population in the park had gone down to 5,000 compared to 10,000 in 2004. apparently Birth control works.
Australia is pretty far from our studio in Montana but our next round is about somewhere even farther away.

H: (Excited gasp) Is it

H+M: Space(?)

All 3: Hahahahaha

J: Ah, yes

H: Well it depends.

 (08:00) to (10:00)

H: There are areas of space that are closer. 

M: Yeah?

H: Space is not that far away from us right now.

M: No.

H: But which part of space is it?

M I haven't read that far ahead yet. Let's find out together. In 1984 a few days into the first mission using space shuttle Discovery the crew realised they had a serious problem: the  toilet system had malfunctioned.

H: Ay ay ay, they all had wet bottom.

M:The nozzle that was supposed to dump waste water out into space got stuck and there was a 13 kilogram icicle made of pee sticking out of the shuttle.

J: Tight.

H: It's not - I mean how many 13 kilogram icicles of pee have there been in the world so far?

M: I'm assuming very few

H: Yeah 

M: So this icicle that's on the shuttle, if it broke off while the shuttle was returning to earth.

H: Mmmm

M: It could have damaged the tiles that were meant to protect the shuttle from heat damage.

H: Okay

M: The crew had to get rid of this icicle as quickly as possible so how did they do it? Did they do a few short engine burns to melt it off, use sunlight to melt it off, do a spacewalk to break it off, or use a robotic arm to break it off?

H: I had to hit twice because it was already on. I'm going to say they used the sun because that seems like they way they would do it. *gasp* I was wrong though!

M: Unfortunately...You are incorrect.

J: Engine blast.

M: Also incorrect.

J: Awww!

H: Heyy! What are we doing here?

M: We're on our way down to zero points.


H: Ugh, I would've used the sun.

M: Maybe it was too big-

J: What did they do?

M:-for the sun to melt in time.

H: Did they do a spacewalk of a pee icicle?

M: They used the robotic arm.

H: Wow! Neat.

M: The icicle was positioned in a way that if it broke off on its own, it would've probably hit the heat-shielding tiles right over the fuel tank for the shuttlle's orbital maneuvering system, and if you're trying to avoid explosions, fuel plus heat is not a good situation. At first, the astronauts did try to use sunlight to melt the icicle off, but it didn't get hot enough. The ice reflected too much heat.

 (10:00) to (12:00)

M: They thought about sending someone out there to pull the ice off, but it was too dangerous for an astronaut to maneuver around that side of the shuttle because there were no hand-holds. Eventually, the NASA team on the ground came up with the idea of breaking off the icicle using the shuttle's robotic arm, which worked. The toilet stayed broken, though, and astronauts had to come up with some creative alternatives like peeing into bags with dirty laundry in them to soak up the liquid, so the rest of the mission wasn't super fun.

M: So, a lunar month is about 29-and-a-half days long—
H: Now that's further than Australia. 
M: —That's how long it takes to go through all of its phases and start over. Since lunar months don't usually line up with solar months exactly, we occasionally get two full moons in one solar month. The second one is sometimes called a blue moon, which is where the phrase "once in a blue moon" comes from.
H: Sure.
M: Blue moons aren't that rare, though; the most recent one was July 31st, 2015, and the next one one will be on January 31st, 2018.  

H: That's pretty rare.  There's a big gap there.

M: We also sometimes have a solar month with no full moon.  So the question is, when was the last solar month with no full moon?

H: Boy, I have no idea.  Like, no, this is gonna--that really is the question?  I am--that's gonna be a pure guess.  

M: So I guess everybody has a 25% chance of correct. 

H: That is correct.

M: Okay, was it A) February 1999, B) July 1999, C) February 1608, or D) July 1608?  

H: Wow!  Wow, it's weird that we could choose from 1999 or 1608 but you go ahead and push that button.  You go ahead and go first.  Got nothing against that idea.

J: February 1999.  Was that an option?  

M: That sure was and you are correct.  

J: Whoo, finally.

H: Wow.  

J: Oh, Lord.

M: Any month with no full moon would have to be a February, because all the other months have more than 29.5 days.  Februarys with no full moon happen three or four times in a century, but they're not always evenly spaced out.  In the Coordinated Universal Time Zone (AKA Greenwich Mean Time), the last February with no full moon was in 1999.

 (12:00) to (14:00)

The time before that was 1961, but 1961 was the first time we had a month with no full moon since 1885.  Meanwhile, the next February with no full moon is coming up next year in 2018.  A February with no full moon on a leap year is even rarer, since the month's 29 days have to line up perfectly.  The last time it happened was in 1608 and the next time will be in 2572.  So unless we make some serious progress on that anti-aging front, none of us are going to experience that one.  


H: Yeah?

M: In 1998--

H: Wow, I'm losing so hard.

M: In 1998, astronomers working with the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia detected some strange signals, pulses of radio waves that were just a few milliseconds long.  Over the next few years, other research teams detected more of them, although they were only ever detected using the Parkes Telescope.  Astronomers called these bursts 'perytons'.  They seemed similar to another mysterious type of signal called a Fast Radio Burst, but after analyzing the perytons more carefully, researchers figured out that unlike Fast Radio Bursts, they weren't actually coming from outer space.  They had a lot of guesses about where these perytons might actually come from, like lightning or signals from planes, but in 2015, a group of researchers finally figured out what was causing the perytons.  

H: Was it--was it syphilis?  Was it global koala wet bottom syndrome?

M: Did you ask if it was syphilis?

H: Yeah.  

J: Chlamydia.

H: Oh, there was a different--sorry, wrong disease.  Sorry, wrong STD over here.  Was it chlamydia?  Was it something to do with koalas?  Was this in Australia?

J: No, I don't think so.

H: No?  Wasn't even in Australia?

M: Yes, actually the telescope is in Australia.  

H: Okay.

M: So was the interference coming from A) People at the observatory opening microwave doors, B) People turning on an old TV that used a cathode ray tube, C) An amateur telescope that had secretly been set up nearby, or D) People resetting a nearby WiFi router?

H: I'm gonna go with the, sorry, I'm gonna go with the microwave oven.

M: That is correct!  

 (14:00) to (16:00)

H: Hey!

J: Whoo!  I was hoping the option was going to be opening a bag of microwave popcorn.

H: Just like, that first like, wave, that waft of that butter smell.

J: Yep.

H: All of the telescopes are just like ahhh.

M: Microwaves are pretty well shielded to keep microwave radiation from escaping.  You wanna cook your food, not the kitchen, but the researchers thought the perytons might have something to do with the microwaves at Parkes anyway.  Microwave radiation can easily interfere with a radio telescope since radio telescopes also detect signals in the microwave range, so the team stuck a cup of water in the microwave and started trying to create a peryton.  Eventually they tried opening the microwave door while it was still on and they got their signal.  It took a couple of milliseconds for the microwave to turn off when the door was opened and some radiation escaped in the meantime.  Mystery solved.

We have reached our--what are you doing?  We have reached our final round where our contestants are going to bet any or all of their points on their answer to the following question: Jullia, you have 900 points.

H: How many points do I have?

M: Hank.

H: Yeah.

M: You have 1200 points.  

H: Ooh.

M: And I can tell you that our next round is going to be about animal biology, so while you decide how much you're gonna bet, we're gonna go to commercial break.

Alright, welcome back.  One of our major problems facing the ocean right now is the bleaching of coral reefs.

H: Oh yeah, that's very sad.

M: Coral polyps have a symbiotic relationship with algae, which live inside their tissue and photosynthesize to make food for themselves and the coral, and coral bleaching happens when conditions in the ocean change, specifically when the water temperature gets too high.  Marine biologists think that one of the main problems is that the algae can't photosynthesize properly in higher temperatures and they start making harmful molecules.  Then the algae and coral separate, which makes the coral reef look white, because without the algae to give them color, the corals' white skeletons show through.  It's a problem because even if the bleached coral recovers, there's usually long-term damage.  It turns out that the same molecules that cause damage in coral tissues also damage humans.  What do they cause in humans?  A) Hair loss, B) Wrinkles, C) Acid reflux, or D) Seasonal allergies?  

 (16:00) to (18:00)

H: Weird that it's any of those.  Here comes Hank with a guess.

M: Write ya guess down right there on your little card.

H: Wait, what?  I'm gonna--okay, I've got, I've got my--

M: Hair loss, wrinkles, acid reflux, seasonal allergies.  

J: Ohh, those are so different.  

M: You guys ready?

H: Yeah.

M: Reveal your answers.  

H: Oh, we both said the same thing.

M: 'Wrankles' which is correct.  

J: We both got it right?

H: Yeah.

M: You both got it right.

It's thought that warmer water makes the algae photosynthesize quickly, too quickly.  They start producing too much oxygen and some of that oxygen ends up in molecules known as reactive oxygen species which are exactly what they sound like: oxygen-containing molecules that are incredibly reactive.  Reactive oxygen species can destroy other molecules like proteins that cells need to survive, so they tend to cause cell damage.  That's not good for the algae or the coral so they go their separate ways.  When the ultraviolet radiation from sunlight hits human skin, that can also produce reactive oxygen species, which can then damage skin cells.  That's a major cause of a lot of the symptoms of skin again, including wrinkles.

Hank Green.

H: Yeah?

M: You are today's winner.  Congratulations.

J: Nooooo.  

M: Which means Melanie is getting an 'I Won SciShow Quiz Show' pin and that means that Alex is getting an 'I Los SciShow Quiz Show' pin.  

J: Ohh, I'm sorry.  

H: But you got that last one right.

J: Yeah.  

H: Wrankles.

J: I did.  

H: Good job.

M: So of course, if you're in Australia, we hope to see you at VidCon: Australia.

H: Yeah.

M: Thanks for joining us on this SciShow: Quiz Show and thanks to all of our Patrons on Patreon.  If you want to help support the show, you can go to and don't forget to go to and what are you doing to my ear?

J: Oh, it looks so good!  

 (18:00) to (18:07)

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