YouTube: https://youtube.com/watch?v=E4N5tQDo76c
Previous: What Are Eye Boogers?
Next: Why Owls Are Night Ninjas

Categories

Statistics

View count:636,180
Likes:15,421
Dislikes:174
Comments:1,438
Duration:08:07
Uploaded:2016-03-27
Last sync:2019-06-13 00:50
There aren't as many rules to naming a scientific discovery as you might think-- and that has led to some pretty outrageous names.

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
----------
Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow
----------
Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, Accalia Elementia, Kathy & Tim Philip, Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Fatima Iqbal, Linnea Boyev, Tomasz Jonarski, Chris Peters, Philippe von Bergen, Will and Sonja Marple, and Mark Terrio-Cameron.
----------
Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow
----------
Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow
Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com
Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow
----------
Sources:

http://www.curioustaxonomy.net/index.html
http://www.iczn.org/iczn/index.jsp
http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/the-worlds-strangest-scientific-names-14139154/?no-ist
http://www.iau.org/public/themes/naming/
http://www.scienceprofonline.com/biology-general/biological-classification-binomial-nomenclature.html
https://nerdfighteria.info/video/crashcourse/F38BmgPcZ_I
http://www.linnean.org/Education+Resources/who_was_linnaeus
https://www.911metallurgist.com/blog/five-minerals-with-super-strange-names
http://www.australianmining.com.au/features/nine-ridiculously-named-minerals-and-rocks
http://www.gk12.research.pdx.edu/question/how-are-minerals-named
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/sillymolecules/sillymols.htm
http://www.nature.com/news/2011/110823/full/news.2011.498.html
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110823180459.htm
http://www.livescience.com/34528-scissorhands-fossil-named-for-johnny-depp.html
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v497/n7451/full/497539b.html?WT.ec_id=NATURE-20130530
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2009/sep/06/david-bowie-spider-endangered-species
http://grist.org/article/bone-worm-dick-head-osedax-mucofloris/
http://voices.nationalgeographic.com/2013/12/16/bone-worm-mating-revealed-males-have-penis-on-head/
http://www.livescience.com/17903-gold-butt-beyonce-fly.html
http://eol.org/pages/393217/overview
https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/01/120113093634.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2012/11/121106-sauron-new-dinosaur-lord-of-the-rings-science-t-rex/
http://research.amnh.org/users/estanley/Ed_Stanley/Smaug.html
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790310003581
http://entomologytoday.org/2014/12/01/curious-scientific-names-can-make-insects-famous/
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9520677
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272382257_The_affect_of_the_space_environment_on_the_survival_of_Halorubrum_chaoviator_and_Synechococcus_Nageli_Data_from_the_Space_Experiment_OSMO_on_EXPOSE-R
http://h2g2.com/edited_entry/A11485019
http://smithsonianscience.si.edu/2011/03/ohboya-its-the-bonaire-banded-box-jellyfish/
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2015/05/27/say-hello-to-the-dementor-wasp-it-turns-cockroaches-into-zombies/
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0095068#s1
http://www.amnh.org/our-research/paleontology/faq/trilobite-website
http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=1199792
http://phys.org/news/2015-05-microbes-survive-meteorites-shielded-uv.html
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARieseng%C3%BCrtenschweif_TerraZoo_1.JPG
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ACordylus_giganteus.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AScaptia_Beyonceae.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAmpulex_dementor_holotype.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AAmpulex_dementor_2.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ADavid_Bowie_spider.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AKootenay_National_Park_-_Paint_Pots_1.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASauroniops_holotype.png
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ASmaug_par_David_Demaret.jpg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AHan_solo_trilobite.JPG
http://www.oum.ox.ac.uk/research/david_legg.htm David Legg

 Introduction(00:00)


Until the mid-1700s, the names we used to identify living things were a bit of a mess. At the time, a lot of scientific names were trying to both identify and describe species, and some of them were like 12 words long. In 1753, a Swedish botanist named Carl Linnaeus tried to fix this problem by the simpler, two-word system that we still use today. Every species has both a generic name, what we'd call a genus name, followed by its trivial, or species name.

He argued that it didn't really matter what the name was, as long as every species got a unique label and everybody agreed to use it. And, that's why today the rules for naming a new species aren't very strict. If you find it, you get to name it, and pretty much anything goes, as long as you use the Latin alphabet and the name isn't too offensive. 

So if you ever happen to discover a new species and want to name it after your favorite sandwich, or Game of Thrones character, or childhood pet, you probably can. But if you're really struggling to come up with your dream species name, here are a few ideas. 

(Intro)

 Halorubrum chaoviator(00:59)


One way to name a species is by going with a clever translation, and maybe a bit of poetic flare. Like the salt loving bacteria whose Latin name means "traveler of the void." It earned that name by surviving in outer space, for 2 years! 

In 2009, researchers sent samples of the bacteria to the International Space station, or more specifically, to the outside of the space station. All of the samples were exposed to the vacuum of space, and some of them were totally shielded from the sun's rays, some were only partially shielded, and some were completely exposed. The bacteria that got the full blast of the sun's radiation all died. but some of the ones that were partially shielded made it, and almost all of the bacteria that were totally protected survived. 

 Osedax Mucofloris(01:37)


Next, we have Osedax Mucofloris, aka the bone-eating snot flower. Which is exactly what it sounds like. The Mucofloris is a pink marine worm that somehow resembles both a frilled flower, and something you'd find in a used tissue. 

These guys live in whale carcasses on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean floor, where the females anchor themselves within the bones of the whales' large skeletons. There, they secrete a special acid that dissolves the bone so they can suck it in, through their skin since lack both mouths and guts. And they really do make themselves at home in these bones.

They send their flower-like gill plumes out the side of the bone to collect oxygen, they also send a long tube-like oviduct. Researchers think that they use the oviduct to shoot out fertilized eggs that can then disperse through the water.

 Gelae(02:16)


If you're not into descriptive translations you could try a solid pun, or just wordplay in general. Like how, when researchers identified a new genus of small brown and yellow fungus beetles they dubbed it Gelae, after the Latin gelatus, meaning "congealed" or "jellied." This made a kind of sense since the tiny round beetles eat, and therefore spend most of their time living one, slime molds. 

The researchers then went on to name five of its species Gelae baen, Gelae belae, Gelae donut, Gelae roll, and Gelae fish, probably just because they could. 

 Heteropoda davidbowie(02:44)


On the other hand, if you've got a new species waiting for a name, you could always just name it after a celebrity. That's what German entomologist and spider expert Peter Jäger did in 2008 when he identified a new type if Malaysian spider and named it Heteropoda davidbowie. Not unlike Aladdin Sane, the spider is big, bright-haired, and fabulous. davidbowies can be 15 to 25 millimeters long, and their whole bodies are covered in yellow, orange, and red hair. They're also one of over 200 species named by Jäger, and not the first inspired by a celebrity.

Many of the species Jäger works with are rare, endangered, and easily overlooked. He estimated there may be only around 500 davidbowies left on their island habitat and hoped that by giving them a flashy celebrity name they might pull some headlines of their own, and draw public attention to conservation efforts. Plus, there's that whole Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars thing, too. 

 Scaptia beyonceae(03:30)


While some researchers may name a species after a celebrity to celebrate that person's achievements, others may notice a particular resemblance between their species and a famous person. In 2011, when curator Bryan Lessard began describing a previously unknown species of Australian horsefly from an old museum collection he was immediately mesmerized by the fly's spectacular lower abdomen, bedazzled by dense golden hairs. What a glamorous bum, he thought. One might even call it "bootylicious." So he named it Scaptia beyonceae after Queen Bet herself. 

Golden booty or not, most people don't appreciate the 4000+ species of horseflies in this world, probably because their bites really hurt and it's really annoying when one keeps buzzing past your eyeball. But horseflies are actually quiet useful citizens of earth. Adult horseflies are important pollinators, they feed on nectar and move pollen around. Only the females bit, but most of them are anautogenous, meaning they properly reproduce without first eating a hearty blood snack, and you can't really blaming a girl for taking care of herself. I'm pretty sure Beyonce even has some songs about that. 

 Kootenichela deppi(04:26)


Then there's the story of paleontologist David Legg, who saw the claw-like front appendages of a 505 million-year-old lobster-like fossil and immediately thought of Edward Scissorhands. The new genus Kootenichela, honored both the place where the fossil was found, Kootenay National Park in British Columbia, and referenced the animal's most distinctive feature with chela, the Latin word for claw. And the species name deppi honored Johnny Depp, the film's sharp-fingered star. 

At about 4 centimeters long, Kootenichela deppi was relatively small, and probably used its big claws to capture or scavenge for prey along shallow sea bottoms. It's essentially the precursor to arthropods we have today, like crabs and scorpions, as well as spiders, centipedes, and insects. 

 Ampulex dementor(05:02)


Now, if celebrities aren't your thing you could always name a newly found species after favorite fictional character. Since science-y types often enjoy science fiction, it probably shouldn't come as a surprise that the Harry Potter, Tolkien, and Star Wars fandoms are already well-represented.

For example, meet the J.K. Rowling inspired Ampulex dementor,  a kind of cockroach wasp. These wasps have the charming habit of zombifying their prey, the way the hooded guards of Azkaban suck the souls right out of their victims. Native to Thailand, dementor wasps stab roaches in the belly, injecting them with a mind-controlling venom that leaves them technically able to move, but unable to control their own bodies. That makes it easier for the wasp to haul them away and chow down, meeting a fate only the worst Death Eater deserves. 

 Sauroniops pachytholus(05:41)


In 2007, paleontologists digging in Morocco unearthed a fossilized skull fragment, discovering a new large, carnivorous dinosaur. The fragment was mostly of the upper skull, nut included an eye socket. They named it Sauroniops because in the words of study leader Andrea Cau "the idea of a predator that is physically known only as its fierce eye reminded me of Sauron." Aren't nerds the best? 

The fossil suggests the animals was toothy, two-legged terror, probably as big as a T-rex, and just as scary as Sauron himself, although without the more fossils it's hard to say for sure. Broad and thick, with a distinct lump on its forehead, a Sauroniops skull looks a bit different than other two-legged dinosaurs from that area. Researchers think males may have used their head-lumps to compete for ladies with some good old fashioned head butting. 

 Smaug(06:22)


Now, Sauron's not the only hobbit enemy getting props. There's also the aptly-named genus Smaug, which contains a group of eight medium-sized African girdled lizards. As members of the cordylidae family, they're noted for their well armored bodies, roughly scaled tails, and large spines. They are basically mini-dragons. 

Smaug species are insectivores, give birth to live young, and bigger than most members of their taxonomic family. They live in deep and narrow rock crevices or in one case, tight underground burrows. Which makes the name even more appropriate since Tolkien probably named his dragon Smaug after the German word for squeezing through a hole. So many layer of meaning here!

 Han solo(06:56)


And finally, no list of fun names would be complete without a Star Wars reference, and my favorite has to be Han solo. Not the character, well maybe the character, but the actual species. It's a type of trilobite, a very old, fossilized group of extinct marine arthropods, and its official scientific name is just straight up Han solo. 

Researcher Samuel Turvey does admit that his friends dared him to name something after a Star Wars character. but the name is actually very clever. for one thing, the fossil was discovered in the Hunan Province of China, and the Han people are a large Chinese ethnic group. The animal also happens to be the only known member of its family, hence the "solo." Trilobites were also diverse, and widely distributed, and if you can find one, they're often nearly as well preserved as Harrison Ford in carbonite. 

 Conclusion(07:37)


These are just a few examples of species with clever, amusing names. So, if you ever have the opportunity to name species of your own, don't be afraid to get creative.

Thank you for watching this SciShow List Show, brought to you by our patrons on Patreon. If you want to help support this show, just go to Patreon.com/SciShow. And don't forget to go to YouTube.com/SciShow and subscribe!