YouTube: https://youtube.com/watch?v=AvKMYFs9_4A
Previous: What Causes Pins and Needles?
Next: How To Make a Digital Clock

Categories

Statistics

View count:179,052
Likes:5,191
Dislikes:53
Comments:341
Duration:11:41
Uploaded:2015-09-24
Last sync:2018-04-28 16:50
Welcome back to SciShow Quiz Show, where Hank goes head-to-head with Craig Benzine, better known as WheezyWaiter.

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
----------
Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Justin Ove, Justin Lentz, David Campos, Chris Peters, Fatima Iqbal, and Lilly Grainger, Happy Birthday!!.
----------
Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: http://dftba.com/scishow

Or help support us by becoming our patron on Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/scishow
----------
Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet?
Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow
Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow
Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com
Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow

Sources:
http://www.nationaleaglecenter.org/learn/faq/
http://www.hornbyeagles.com/eaglefaq.htm#C
http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v19/n10/abs/nbt1001-962.html
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/aug/05/iran-scientists-clone-endangered-mouflon-domestic-sheep
http://www.hngn.com/articles/116760/20150806/iran-clones-mouflon-rare-wild-sheep-using-surrogate-ewe.htm
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/10/1025_TVsheepclone_2.html
http://www.scielo.br/pdf/po/v19n3/v19n3a13
http://aem.asm.org/content/74/12/3764.full
http://www.livescience.com/7214-rare-semi-identical-twins-discovered.html
http://discovermagazine.com/2008/jan/semi-identical-twins-discovered

(Intro)

Michael: Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, welcome to SciShow Quiz Show, the only quiz show on SciShow! I'm your host, Michael Aranda, and today on SciShow Quiz Show we have internet guy and musician Hank Green.

Hank: Oh yeah, hi.

M: Hi.

H: I'm here!

M: We also have internet guy and musician, Craig Benzine.

Craig: Hello, hi.

H: And also the host of The Good Stuff. Which we should talk about as much as possible because it's very good stuff.

C: The Good Stuff! Watch it.

H: It's a real show.

C: It's a show. It's educational, you might like it!

H: It's a lot like SciShow, except better.

M: Wow.

C: Exactly.

M: As a special thank you to our supporter on Patreon, we have selected two random Patreon supporters that you guys will play for today. Hank, you will be competing on behalf of Justin Lentz.

H: Hi Justin.

M: Craig, you'll be playing for Camille Scent.

C: Hey Camille, I hope I don't let you down.

H: But you will.

M: Ooh, them's fighting words

M: OK, you guys both start off with 1000 SciShow bucks. Each time you answer a question correctly you will win some number of bucks that get made up in that moment. If you don't answer or if you answer incorrectly you lose some number of points that also get made up in that moment.

C: Where are SciShow bucks accepted?

H: Only nowhere.

(Laughter)

C: Alright

M: Stephan, tell the contestants what they could win today!

Stephan: Well Michael, our contestants will be taking home autographed cards from Hank and Craig, as well as the "I Won SciShow Quiz Show" or the highly sought after "I lost SciShow Quiz Show" pin, this fancy-shmancy out of print Hank Green CD signed by the man himself, and the winner will also get a copy of the script and a slice of Pizza John swag. Back to you Micheal.

M: Are you guys ready?

H: We're ready, we're gonna play the game!

C: Let's do it

M: The first round is all true and false about bald eagles.

H: Ooh.

M: Bald eagles usually spend a lot of their time near the water since they eat fish. With that in mind, true or false, if they land in the water that's too deep for wading they'll use their wings to row themselves?

(Buzzer)

C: False

M: Incorrect, Sir.

C: I had a 50/50 chance

H: Do I also lose points since I didn't go?

C: I think so, yeah. An equal amount.

M: I mean, I mean... You might as well get a chance to answer the question.

(Buzzer)

H: True.

M: You're correct! Woah!

C: How did you know that?

M: Many other birds like ducks propel themselves through the water with their webbed feet, but a bald eagle's talons aren't going to catch much water. Instead bald eagles use their wings almost like oars pushing themselves along in the birds version of a breast stroke.

M: 100 points from you, 100 points to you.

H: I feel bad about that.

C: You should.

H: I don't feel, I feel less bad now that you've been mean.

C: You're welcome

M: Okay, Question two: True or false, bald eagles have a fantastic sense of smell which helps them tell if scavenged meat has gone bad?

(Buzzer)

C: False

M: You are correct.

H: Yeah, that seems right.

C: I've heard they have a good sense of sight but you never hear anything about smell.

H: Where are they gonna keep all their smells?

C: Yeah.

H: The smell things, they've got tiny little heads.

M: In their beak?

H: They're not like dogs where it's like "I've got a mostly nose!"

M: I have a mostly nose.

M: Bald eagles aren't picky eaters and even though they do hunt for prey they'll also go for scavenged meat. Like most bird though they don't have very good sniffers so bald eagles can't smell if meat has gone bad but it doesn't matter too much because the acid in their stomach kills most of the harmful bacteria in rotting meat.

M: OK, last true/false question: Benjamin Franklin really did not want the bald eagle to be on the seal of the United States. He wrote a whole essay about it and one of his argument was that bald eagles can be scared off by small kingbirds. Since the colonies had just throw out their own King Bird, as in King George III, Franklin felt that it was inappropriate for the American seal. So...

(Buzzer)

C: Oh.

H: True.

C: True.

M: Yes?

C: True. I think I know what you were gonna say. He wanted the turkey to be the mascot of the United States.

M: So, true or false? 

H: Is that what it is? Is that the question?

M: If it was I'd give you a million points right now.

C: Okay

M: It's not. True or false, kingbirds can sometimes scare away bald eagles.

(Buzzer)

H: False.

M: You are correct!

H: Yeah, I figured. He was a maker-up of things.

M: A maker-up of things.

H: I feel like a Benjamin Franklin essay, I'm not gonna take a lot of that necessarily as scientific evidence.

M: Some of Franklin's other arguments against the bald eagle like that they would steal prey from other birds were accurate, but bald eagles aren't scared of small birds. Historians think that he probably just saw a bald eagle get bored of chasing a kingbird and fly away and misinterpreted that as the kingbird intimidating the eagle.

M: OK. The end of Round 1, you've got 900 points, you've got 1100 points. We're moving on to Round 2, all about clones.

C: Oh.

H: Oh.

C: I know everything about this.

M: Every so often scientists will attempt to clone a member of a threatened population. In 2001, for example, a group of biologists cloned the endangered mouflon. What is... is that how you say that?

Phone voice: Mouflon or mouflon. French: mouflon.

M: OK, Round 2 is all about clones. Every so...

H: I know everything about this.

M: Every so often scientists will attempt to clone a member of a threatened population. In 2001, for example, a group of biologists cloned the endangered mouflon, a type of wild sheep. The clone lived for 7 months and was considered a huge success. More recently in July, a group of Iranian biologists cloned another one. The hope is that eventually this technology could save a group from extinction or even bring back an extinct species. When it comes to endangered or extinct species the cloning process tends to be a little more unusual and more complicated. So what was different about the mouflon cloning process? The embryo couldn't be grown from adult stem cells, they could only implant one embryo at a time, the clone had to be delivered pre-term, then incubated, or they had to use a regular sheep as a surrogate mother?

(Buzzer)

H: I'm gonna go with D, they had to use a regular sheep as a surrogate mother.

M: They sure did.

H: Yeah!

C: Uh!

M: That is exactly what they did.

H: I know you knew.

C: I did.

H: But I hit it faster.

C: That was the one I was gonna go with, but I was just thinking about my own clones and I got distracted.

H: Are they birthed by surrogate mothers?

M: When scientists are cloning animals they usually take the DNA from the donor's cell and put inside the nucleus of an unfertilized egg. The egg acts like its been fertilized and starts dividing and if all goes well develops into an embryo that can be transplanted into a surrogate mother. But when it comes to cloning endangered species there might not always be a potential surrogate around and even if there is it might not be worth the risk. So instead the scientists used a common domesticated sheep as a surrogate. The hope is that eventually the technology could be used to save endangered species or even bring back extinct one. 

M: You might have heard that the type of bananas you'll find in stores are all clones of each other, they're Cavendish bananas and every other step of their lives is carefully planned so that they ripen at the right time. Recently there's been some talk of extending the amount of time that bananas stay ripe by coating them in chitosan, which is an edible compound derived from crustacean shells, crustacean?

H&C: Crustacean.

M: ****!

M: Chitosan, which is an edible substance derived from crustacean shells that's already used to coat things like fruits and vegetables, tomatoes for example. It works by blocking cellular respiration slowing the ripening process and has a lot of other benefits too.

H: Oh.

M: Which one of these is not something that chitosan has been proven to do for bananas: prevent bruising, prevent weight loss, prevent the loss of potassium, or kill bacteria?

(Buzzer)

C: Prevent weight loss, B.

M: I'm sorry, sir, that is incorrect.

H: What? How is there a weight loss... What does that even mean? I don't know but I do know the answer.

(Buzzer)

H: Which is that it has not been proven to do that thing with bacteria, that last one.

M: I'm sorry, sir, you are incorrect.

H: Dang it! Oh go dang.

M: It wouldn't really make sense for chitosan to prevent the loss of potassium because the potassium content of bananas doesn't change as they ripen. But chitosan does stop the bananas from bruising as easily and keeps them from losing as much water and therefore weight as they would without the coating. It's also a powerful anti-microbial agent. Scientists think that the positively charged molecules in the chitosan mess with negatively charged molecules in the bacteria's cell membranes.

M: We've reached our 3rd and final round called Double or Nothing or Something Else, in which you can wager up to 1100 points or 700 points.

H: 'Cause that's how much you have.

(Michael Laughs)

C: Miscount. Someone miscounted

M: I can tell you that the last question is also about cloning. That's the only hint you get. While you guys place your bets we're going to go to commercial break.

M: Welcome back, you guys ready?

H: Woah, hey.

M: Hey.

C: Hey, hey, hey.

M: Long time no see.

H: Sometimes we go away, sometimes we don't.

C: I got a massage, it was very nice. Very nice.

H: I missed that.

C: Yeah, well.
 
H: I just stood here.

C: I know, it's amazing.

H: You jerk.

(Laughter)

M: OK, we're going to talk about identical twins. They are probably the closest we've gotten to human clones since they have the same DNA. They develop from one fertilized egg which splits in half within nine days of fertilization. Fraternal twins, on the other hand, develop from two entirely different zygotes but there are other rarer kinds of twins some of which are still being discovered.

H: Oh.

C: Hmm.

M: In 2008 doctors reported the first known case of a new type of twins called semi-identical. So the question is how do semi-identical twins form? Is it when the unfertilized egg, splits in two, and each half is fertilized by the same person's sperm, the unfertilized egg splits in two, and each half is fertilized by different people's sperm, the zygote splits in two, but then stem cells reconnect the halves, or the zygote splits in two but a little later then usual?

H: Mmm.

C: Can someone hum some music?

H: Seriously this...

(Michael hums the Jurassic Park. They all join in. Hank starts to sing it.)

C: So wait, so which one was dinosaurs are impregnating...

(Laughter)

H: Semi-identical dinosaurs.

C: Alright.

H: Sperm.

C: I'm not very confident in my answer, I'm not gonna lie to you.

H: Yes, I don't know the answer either.

C: Good.

M: OK, OK. Reveal your answers.

C: A.

H: A.

M: You're both correct!

H&C&M: Yay!

M: Semi-identical twins are actually human chimeras meaning that some of their cells have different sets of genetic information. Generally an unfertilized egg splits in to two ova one of which can be fertilized by sperm and develop into an embryo. In a human chimera both the ova are fertilized by two different sperm cells start dividing but then connect to form one developing embryo. Human chimeras are pretty unusual, but semi-identical twins are even rarer. They form when that chimera embryo splits in two and each half turns into a separate fetus. Until this case was reported researchers had thought that semi-identical twins were possible but didn't know for sure.

M: Stephan, tell Justin and Camille what happens when we tie.

H: 'Cause we don't know ourselves.

M: Make something up and tell it to them.

S: Well Michael, the tiers are actually the big winners this week because they're gonna get the just now invented "I tied at SciShow Quiz Show" pin.

M: Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Quiz Show. If you'd like to support us you can go to patreon.com/scishow. If you'd like to see more of Craig and his show The Good Stuff you can find that at youtube.com/thegoodstuff, and don't forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.

(Outro)