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Hank squares off against Crash Course Astronomy host Phil Plait in our special Valentine’s/Old Timey Medicine edition of SciShow Quiz Show!

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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Michael: Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, welcome to SciShow Quiz Show, the show where the points are made up, but the science is real. I'm your host Michael Aranda. Today we have senior SciShow White House correspondent Hank Green versus the Crash Course Astronomy host Phil Plait. Hank, you are playing on behalf of Aimee Eisiminger.
Hank: Hi Aimee, how's it going, I'm gonna win!
Michael: And Phil, you're playing on behalf of Ian McDowell.
Phil: Hey Ian. I'm talking to you although you're not actually here right now.
Hank: Weird.
Michael: To find out how our contestants can play for you, you can go to Both of you start out with 1,000 points. Each time-
Phil: I quit. I'm done. That's it.
Michael: Okay. See ya.
Hank: Sometimes that is the best policy. I have ended below before.
Michael: Ah, each time you answer a question correctly, you will win some number of points that I make up at the time. If you get a question wrong, you might loose points. Who knows! Ah, whoever has the most points at the end wins some kind of stuff from DFTBA. Stefan, what will our winner take home today?
Stefan: Well Michael, both Aimee and Ian will be taking home these autographed cards from Hank and Phil with their final guesses and wagers on them, as well as either the "I won SciShow Quiz Show" pin or the highly sought after "I lost SciShow Quiz Show" pin, a fancy, out of print Hank Green CD signed by the man himself, and the winner will also take home a copy of the script from this episode plus this Pizza John blanket. Good luck Aimee and Ian, and back to you, Michael.
Michel: Okay. In honor of Phil joining us today, our first question is going to be about a planet. Specifically the planet earth. And more specifically, the volcanoes on the planet earth. So really, it doesn't really have anything to do with astronomy. Where is the most active volcano in the world? Is it Mount Edna in in Italy? Is it Kilauea in Hawaii? Is it Mount Tambora in Indonesia? Or is it Stromboli in Italy?
Phil: Then you ring in first, and it'll make it easier on me.
Hank: The Hawaiian one. Kilauea.
Michael: You are incorrect.
Hank: Aw, it turned red.
Hank: I just always see those YouTube videos of lava pouring out of Hawaii, and I'm like, Well that makes sense. But I don't know, what does "most active" mean Michael?
Michael: I have no idea.
Phil: Well, he'll have to take away some points from you.
Hank: Oh, did you point it? You're push- you're pushing it. You're buzzing it!
Michael: Do you have an answer?
Phil: This is fun though.
Michael: Do you have an answer? Do you have an answer?
Phil: I have 3 answers. I have to pick from one. Um, it's either Edna or Stromboli. I'm going to go with Edna.
Michael: Incorrect.
Hank & Phil: Ugh!
Green Screen Michael: The correct answer is Stromboli. An island volcano off Italy's western coast, Stromboli site on the northern boundary of the African Plate. And according to the US geological survey, it has been in a near constant state of eruption for at least 2,000 years. Stromboli is known for its unique style of eruption, which involves almost hourly explosions of gas, glowing cinders, and so-called "bombs of lava" that are thrown hundreds of meters into the air. This kind of volcanic activity is known, logically enough, as Strombolian eruption. But the bigger, more violent eruptions that we usually associate with volcanoes are known as Plinian eruptions. Probably the most famous of these was the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in the year 79, which buried the city of Pompeii, but Vesuvius hasn't erupted since 1944. Mt. Tambora in Indonesia erupts this way too, as it did in 1815 , when it caused the largest documented eruption in history, ejecting 160 cubic kilometers of gas, dust, and debris into the atmosphere. But thankfully its most recent eruption was just a little burp in 1967. Finally, Hawaii's Kilauea volcano is probably the world's second most active volcano. It typifies what geologists call the Hawaiian type of eruption, which involves low levels of gas, high temperatures, and long, slow oozes of lava. Kilauea has been erupting this way nonstop since 1983, and has been active for all but 30 of the past 190 years.
Michael: Minus 100 points!
Michael: Minus 100 points to both of you!
Phil: It doesn't count that I- urr.
Michael: The very first Nobel prize in physiology or medicine was awarded to German physiologist Emil von Behring in 1901. He was awarded for his work in developing serum therapy, in which animals like horses or pigs were infected with a weakened version of a pathogen, and then serum from the animal's blood was injected into human patients who had already been infected. Behring's therapy was so successful that it's still in use today, sometimes with other humans as the source of the therapeutic blood cells. This technique is now used to treat all of the following diseases except:Tetanus, Ebola, malaria, diphtheria.
Hank: These are harder than they've been previously... K, I don't know, but Phil buzzed in.
Phil: I think I buzzed in.
Hank: He did.
Phil: Those are all infectious diseases, except malaria, which is a parasite, so I'm going to go with malaria.
Hank: That's true, gah, why wasn't I thinking?
Michael: You are correct, sir.
Green Screen Michael: Malaria. Unlike the other diseases which are caused by bacteria or viruses, malaria is caused by a blood-borne parasite called plasmodium. And partly because there are so many species of the parasite that occur in so many different life stages, researchers haven't been able to develop a serum that consistently prevents the disease in humans. But Behring's technique did help wipe out an outbreak of diphtheria among European youth in the late 1800s, earning him the title of "the saver of children". His therapy also became widely used as a treatment for Tetanus, a bacterial infection of the nervous system. And it even works against Ebola, as seen in the case of nurse Nina Pham, whose infection with the virus in 2014 was reversed after a course of serum therapy.
Hank: Aw!
Michael: That is plus 200 points to Phil.
Phil: Science!
Hank: Yeah, of course they wouldn't use serum therapy for a parasite.
Michael: Minus 200 points to Hank Green.
Phil: They might. It's like, your blood chemistry is weird and... kills malaria.
Hank: But it's not-- That's not how serum therapy works.
Phil: It worked on The Andromeda Strain, and I know what I see on TV is always true.
Michael: Next question. Edema is a condition characterized by the pooling of fluids in human tissues that causes swelling, often due to problems with the circulatory system. But you'll sometimes hear this condition referred to by its informal, Victorian era name, which is: dropsy, palsy, falling sickness, or grippe.
Phil: Wow. Also the vapors and--
Hank: I'm going to go with dropsy. 
Michael: You are correct!  
Hank: Yeah.
Michael: In the 1800s, Edema was widely known as 'Hydropsy', from the Greek word for water, and later became known as 'dropsy', a term that's still in use.  But if your doctor uses it, you might wanna find a physician who's like, less than a hundred years old.  Palsy, meanwhile, was a general term used to describe any condition that caused paralysis, while 'Falling Sickness' referred to certain forms of epilepsy.  And 'grippe', sometimes 'la grippe' or 'the grippe' was a term for Influenza, from the French word for 'to seize', probably because of the constriction of the throat that some patients experienced.  
That is 200 points to Hank.  
Hank: Oh, 200!  
Michael: 200 away from Phil.  
Phil: I was assuming that just like, vertigo, like just falling down, but--
Hank: You just took--you just took a bit away, points away from him, he didn't even try.
Michael: Yeah, but he still didn't get the question right.
Hank: So I got 400 points basically.
Michael: Yup.
Hank: Wow.
Phil: Science, not math.  
Hank: You'd better try harder.
Phil: I'm gonna try harder.  I'm gonna start guessing.
Michael: Next question, no touching.  This device was the first instrument of its kind to be used in Western medicine.  What is it?  The first otoscope.  The first medical suction pump.  The first portable microscope.  Or the first stethoscope.
Phil: Oh, shoot.  I'm gonna go with stethoscope.  
Hank: That would--that would have been my guess.  
Michael: You are correct.  It is the first stethoscope.  It was invented by French physician Rene Laennec in 1816, when he was visited by a young female patient complaining of heart problems, but he didn't want to check her heart in the way that doctors typically did at the time, which was to press his ear to her chest.  So he rolled up some sheets of paper into a cylinder and found that he could not only hear her heart, but the funnel shaped tube actually amplified the sound.  He soon began making the devices out of wood and brass and named them after the Greek words for 'breast' and 'to look at'.  
Let's give 200 points back to Phil.
Phil: Yay!
Michael: I'm sorry, Hank, but you just lost that 200 points.  That you mmehehhguhmuhshshmm.
Phil: He still has my other 200 points.
Michael: Okay, for our final round, our contestants will choose to bet any number of their points on their answer.  I can tell you that the theme is Valentine's Day, so make your bets, and we will be right back after this commercial break.
Welcome back.  Okay.  Feelings of affection, intimacy, and commitment have been linked to two main hormones that we secrete when we're with that special someone.  Oxytocin, which is typically released during moments of very close intimacy like childbirth--
Hank: I don't know why you decided to do that to me instead of Phil.
Michael: --breastfeeding, sex, and Vasopressin, which has been associated with maternal behavior, long-term bonding between mates.  Now, neither of these comes from your heart, so where in your brain do these hormones originate?  Is it the hypothalamus, the amygdala, the medulla oblongata, or the hippocampus?  
Hank: Wow, I thought it was none of those.  I was pretty sure I knew it and it was none of those.  
Phil: You were thinking pineal gland, weren't you.  
Hank: I wasn't.  
Phil: 'cause I was.  Then everybody is wrong.
Hank: Everybody is wrong!  Okay, shake hands and go home 'cause I'm definitely losing this game.
Phil: Can we get that one again?
Michael: Hypothalamus, amygdala--
Hank: Amygdala.
Michael: The medulla oblongata, or hippocampus.
Phil: Well, the amygdala was the queen in Star Wars, so I know it's not that one.  
Hank: Let me see this.  Can I just look?  
Michael: Don't--don't look at my card.  Don't touch my card.  Ready?  Show your answers.  
Phil: Ah.
Hank: He said hypothalamus and I said hippocampus and then I drew a hippo.  
Michael: Phil, you are our winner.  It is the hypothalamus.  The amygdala plays an important role in your body's hormonal reaction, but it's responsible for things like your body's fight or flight response in times of stress.  The medulla oblongata, meanwhile, controls involuntary functions like breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure, and the hippocampus is the seat of memory and spatial orientation.  But the hypothalamus, the tiny structure at the base of the brain that's about the size of an almond, is where your nervous system meets your endocrine system, so that's where many important hormones, including oxytocin and vasopressin, are manufactured.  Then they're moved to the pituitary gland where they're secreted at just the right time.  So really, we should all start giving each other Valentines that are in the shape of the hypothalamus.  
Thanks for joining us on SciShow Quiz Show.  Remember, if you want one of our resident smarties to compete for you, you can go to, be sure to check out CrashCourse Astronomy with Phil Plait, and don't forget to go to and subscribe.  
Hank: I'm not feeling like a resident smarty today, Michael.  I'm sorry, Amy.  
Michael: I'm sorry, too.  
Phil: Ian, this is for you.