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Can a whale use a snorkel? Am I getting one vaccine or two? What is Hank's job? Why do some hoodies have pockets in their pockets? How many popes per square mile does the Vatican have? Is artificial gravity possible? Hank Green and John Green have answers!

If you're in need of dubious advice, email us at hankandjohn@gmail.com.

Join us for monthly livestreams and an exclusive weekly podcast at patreon.com/dearhankandjohn.

Follow us on Twitter! twitter.com/dearhankandjohn

 (00:00) to (02:00)


[Dear Hank and John intro music plays]

Hank: Hello and welcome to Dear Hank and John!

John: Or as I prefer to think of it, Dear John and Hank.

Hank: It's a podcast where two brothers answer your questions, give you dubious advice and bring you all the week's news from both Mars and AFC Wimbledon. John, do you know why some fish like to swim in salt water?

John: I don't.

Hank: 'Cause if they swam in pepper water, that would make them sneeze.

John: [sighs] It's not even a joke. There's no pun, it's...

Hank: [laughs] John, I've just been feeling in general like my jokes have been too good lately, so I wanted to toss that one out for you.

John: Ohhh, oh, you're trying to take it down a notch to lower my expectations so that when you, in a couple weeks you're building up to an amazing jokes like Euripides, my all time favorite joke. Like, you have told a good joke in this segment and every time I think to myself, is this like

Hank: Another Euripides?

John: Is this like the tailor who´s named Euripides? No!

Hank: [laughs] That was a good one!

John: No it´s gonna be, fish don´t live in pepper water because they might sneeze. Which.. no part of the joke makes sense. Speaking of no part of anything making sense: how about 2021? Uh.. the project for awesome is ending as we are uploading this but...

Hank: Yeah! You might have a little time to get in and get those last perks.

John: You might have a little bit of time to still get some perks at projectforawesome.com/donate - wonderful perks that will be gone forever if you do not grab them quickly. I mean like, don´t text and drive obviously. Pull over, put the car in park and then go to projectforawesome.com/donate and get your perks. Including an exclusive episode of Dear Hank and John, in case you don´t get enough of this crap.

Hank: Erm.. yeah and thank you to everyone who joined us during the project for awesome. We don´t know how that went because we´re recording before it happened.

John: Hopefully it was okay!

Hank: I bet it was great!

John: Hopefully I survived.

Hank: I think, you´ll be fine. It´s a good ol´ time! Aw, man, I can´t wait for the mars news, this week and next week! Hoohuhuhu!

John: I can´t wait for the AFC Wimbledon news this weeks so... it´s exciting times!

 NewSection (2:09)


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John: This first question comes from Elisabeth who writes Dear Hank and John, would it be possible to train a whale to use a very long snorkel that attached to its blowhole so that it could swim under water forever without coming upr air? What about dolphins in scuba gear? Queen, Elisabeth
I love... I´m not sure that this question came from Her Royal Highness

Hank: Queen Elisabeth? [laughs]

John: But I like to imagine the possibility that queen Elisabeth the second is a regular listener of Dear Hank and John and is very curious about whale snorkels. This seems like the kind of thing prince Charles would be into so I´m a little bit surprised that it´s queen Elisabeth? 

Hank: Yeah! Well, maybe, she´s passing it along. 

John: Hank, you don´t spend as much time as I do thinking about the English royal family. But, man! Do I spend a lot of times thinking about those rascally rabbits. Queen Elisabeth wants to know: Is it possible for a whale to use a snorkel?

Hank: Yeah, I mean I think maybe prince Charles does and she´s just passing it along. 

John: That is exactly right! Prince Charles was like hey, I´m embarrassed to ask this question but I feel like if you ask it you´ll get an answer? I got a history of wacky ideas, mom, but maybe you can, yea

Hank: Yea, there´s a couple of potential problems here. I  mean, one: They´re already very good at this. Like a lot of whales, you´re talking about.. you´d need a Very long snorkel because they gotta go very deep. And you got some physical limitations here. You´d need a rigid snorkel so it doesn´t like push behind them. And then also the volume of the snorkel. If it´s really long, even if it´s really skinny, will contain a lot of air. And so if they´re not... if their lung capacity is equal to the volume of the interior of the snorkel, they won´t actually get air exchange with the outside world. There´s also a giant pressure differential here. That´s gonna be a big problem. There´s a number of limitations. 

 (04:00) to (06:00)


Hank: The Main one though, is that dolphins and whales are already really good at this and they don´t... I´d be like birds evolving more wings. Like, they don´t need more wings, they´re good! Like whales, yeah probably there´s an advantage to being able to stay underwater for longer, especially for like spermwhales who are deep sea hunters. But uh.. for the most part they´ve got it figured out, man! But I do wanna see a dolphin in a scuba suit, for sure!

John: Any time you´re inventing an invention you first gotta ask the question "What problem am I trying to solve?" And I´m just not convinced that in the case of whales or dolphins... like, they Have problems, don´t get me wrong, it´s just that their problems are... us. 

Hank: Yeahh, largely. And i don´t know that uhh... certainly a giant snorkel is gonna increase their ability to avoid us. 

John: I suppose so. Alternatly, we start scanning the ocean for large snorkels. 

Hank: That´s not... I mean, that´s not the biggest problem.

John: I just... I don´t trust humans any further than I can throw is and most of us I can´t throw at all. So I feel like we need to probably harness our resources around doing a better job of understanding and internalizing and acting out the fact that, like it or not, we are now the dominant species on the planet. And we to very large extend decide how things go for whales. At least for the moment. Now I think, in the long arc of history, there´s gonna come a time when the whales decide how things go for us and by the way, if we don´t do a good job right now of deciding how things go for the whales, they may remember that.

Hank: Right, yeah, and also that moment will come sooner because the process of no longer being the dominant species on the planet will be a quicker one. 

John: How long have we been truly the dominant species on the planet? Maybe like 60 000 years? 40 000 years? 

Hank: Oh no, I think less than that! 

John: Oh, I think we were crushing some large predator population 40 000 years ago.

Hank: Sure, yeah, I guess. But like not dominant, we were like a dominant species 

John: We were Top 3

Hank: We were not in control. We were not in control of the world. Well, we´re still not in control but most of what we are not in control of is ourselves.

John: You wanna know what´s in control of the world, Hank? A single strand of RNA. You wanna know what´s running this ship right now?  Like seven hundred nucleotide pairings. 

Hank: And it´s not fair, is it?

John: It´s not fair! It´s not even... I looked at a picture of it and it´s not even smart. I don´t know how long we´ve been the dominant species but one thing I do know is that we are. And at least in my opinion, we need to take this responsibility just a smidge more seriously.

 (06:00) to (08:00)


John: How long have we been truly the dominant species on the planet? Maybe like 60 000 years? 40 000 years? 

Hank: Oh no, I think less than that! 

John: Oh, I think we were crushing some large predator population 40 000 years ago.

Hank: Sure, yeah, I guess. But like not dominant, we were like a dominant species 

John: We were Top 3

Hank: We were not in control. We were not in control of the world. Well, we´re still not in control but most of what we are not in control of is ourselves.

John: You wanna know what´s in control of the world, Hank? A single strand of RNA. You wanna know what´s running this ship right now?  Like seven hundred nucleotide pairings. 

Hank: And it´s not fair, is it?

John: It´s not fair! It´s not even... I looked at a picture of it and it´s not even smart. I don´t know how long we´ve been the dominant species but one thing I do know is that we are. And at least in my opinion, we need to take this responsibility just a smidge more seriously.

 NewSection (6:52)


Hank: Alright, John, this next question comes from Grace who asks "Dear Hank and John, I´m getting my first dose of the Maderna COVID vaccine today, woooh! Due to your previous discussion about how Grover Cleveland is only one man and can therefore only be a singular president, a question occurred to me. Will I be getting one vaccine in two doses or two vaccines? Your thoughts? Not Hazel, just Grace"

John: This is the kind of question, Hank, that we really need to be answering. This is a service we can provide to the people.

Hank: Yes! It´s not like medical advise so much as pedantry. So we are here for that!

John: And it´s very important because it extends my argument that Grover Cleveland cannot be two presidents because he is only one person into new arenas which helps people understand that Grover Cleveland was not two presidents.

Hank: Right!

John: And that! Is the mission of my life.

Hank: But Grover Cleveland was, was inaugurated twice!

John: Sure!

Hank: Which is the case for Ronald Reagon and Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. But there´s a scientific angle here which is that there are some vaccines that are the same vaccines twice.

John: Right!

 (08:00) to (10:00)


Hank: And there are some vaccines that are two different things.

John: Yes!

Hank: In the case of these MRNA vaccines like the Maderna vaccine, it is the same vaccine twice. Basically it´s saying, we´re gonna expose your immune system to this protein that is  part of the COVID 19 virus and your immune system will say uh that doesn´t look great. But, maybe the first time its like, well that didn´t have a significant negative impact on me, I´ll remember it but not as like s serious thread. The second time it comes along, your immune system says Oh! So this is a things I´m actually gonna see more than once. So I´m actually gonna create some robust systems to prevent you from getting this disease.  And that´s why with the MRNA vaccines and with many vaccines,  we have this booster system where it´s like first exposure and second exposure to the same vaccine. Which is the case in this case but not with all COVID vaccines. And  there are a couple that are actually two different things.

John: And in the case of those MRNA vaccines, you´re getting two doses of one vaccine. And so you´re getting a vaccine that comes in two shots which are spaced apart. Now in the case of there being  a slightly different formulation in the booster shot - and this is where it´s gonna get controversial, Grace, so strap in - you are still getting two doses of one vaccine. It´s just that the second part of the vaccine you are getting has a slightly different formulation for the previous part but it is still one vaccine. The only way you can get two vaccines if you´re in this hypothetical group that I don´t think exists yet but has been talked about where like some people might get the first dose of the Pfitzer vaccine and the second dose of the Maderna vaccine. In that case, which I don´t think has happened yet but if it were to happen, that would arguably be two vaccines because that is a Grover Cleveland and a Millard Fillmore both entering your body, not two Grover Clevelands.

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