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We're halfway through with Crash Course Sociology so this week we're taking a quick break in which Nicole struggles to say the all the words.


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In much of the natural sciences, the environment in which research is done is completely controlled by scientist. ssss [laughs] By one scientist.

[into plays]

Martineau's observations included some of the first academic observations of American gender roles and she dedicated much of the third volume to the study of marriage, [laughing] female occupations and the health [laugh from offscreen] of women.

When we asked at the very beginning why you raise your hand, [mock accent:] hand to ask a question to ask a question in math class,

While the ascribed statuses of middle aged, while the ascribed statuses of middle age, [angry mumbling] [laughs from offscreen]

[lip trill]

Books such as "The Second Sex" by Simone de Beauvior and "The Feminine Mystique by Betty Fried–Frieden! Ahuh..huh...[laughs from offscreen] Ahuh!

People were producing more than they needed to survive, but instead of that surflus--surflus. The surflufs!

Social facts and their coercive power represent a form of social f--represent a form of social cohe-zin, cohesion!

Social facts and their coercive power represent a form of social cohesion. Why, why? [laughs]

Social facts and their coercive power represent a form of cu-social, cu-social co-HEEE-sion!

[singing:] Boi ch-birch birch birch birr..

As a result, we've seen a lot of important changes in organizations that house these kinds of newer job.

[laugh from offscreen]

This is the age old question: Nurture, nature, or nurture. This, [laughs] [offscreen: Nurture, nature, or nurture?]

So you have to define your concept which becomes even more important when you get to the next step of the research process: stating a hypo- a hypothesis. [laugh from offscreen] A pa-hoo-be-heh.

But social location also [laugh from offscreen]

We're talk- we're bringing bur-beh-beh.

On the micro level, these ideas were picked up by what's known as the symbolic interactionist paradigm, and theorists like Ervin Goffming. Goff- Ervin Goffman! Erv- Erving Goffman! [offscreen: Wow] Erving Goffman!

Martineau started out kind of like the Crash Course of her time, bringing re-sorts, resorch, [offscreen: Rees? She did the re-sorts!] She did the reshorts?

Benjamin Lee Whorf, the American linguist who helped shape this theory, did his original re-sort, researchhhhhh!

[higher lip trill]

[offscreen: You're starting every cut like this.]
[offscreen: Yeah]

And his list goes on. Every life stage from when you're born to when you're da, when you're die, [offscreen: When you're die!] When you're die.

In his ambitious book called [mumbling] [offscreen: It's okay]

For our purposes as sociologists, we will mainly be focused on the second type of culture and its three main elements: symbols, values, beliefs...and norms. Okay I was like, [laughs] that's not three! [laughs] [offscreen: It was great to watch it happen, oh no!]

[singing:] Beh-beh-ber-berp-bur-bur

If you look back at early human history, say thirty to forty thousand years ago, you'll find a lot of what Lenski called huntering and gathering societies. [offscreen: Huntering?] Huntering, yeah? I was trying. [laughs] [mock accent:] Yeah, don't you know about huntering?

You find a lot of what Lenski called hunting and gathering societies. Almost said huntering. [laughing] [offscreen: I could tell, but you didn't!]

People in huntering and gathering– [laughs] I don't know why! I don't know why.

So by their very nature such societies tend to be small. Huntering and gathering, huntering, I did it again! [offscreen: Ahhhh!] Aaaaaagh! [laughs]

Take for instance, the consistent finding that named [slowly:] resum-EES-UM! [sighs] [laugh offscreen] [laughs]

Compared to old-style bureaucracies, average employees in the information industry have a more [teeth clenched:] direct connection to their leadership! That wasn't the telephone ((?~3:54) however?) that was just me, so [offscreen: I could tell your reaction was different(?~3:58)] [laughs] It's the worst. Teleprompter you know, there's nothing you can do, like I can--not suck! [offscreen: Usually when it's a teleprompter it's exasperation] Yeah. [laughs] [offscreen: If it's you, it's anger] [laughs]

The ideals of liberty and justice for all enshrined in our founding documents: HEAVILY influenced by French philosophers like Rousseau and Voltaire, and British philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, as well as the Iroquois Confederacy and its ideas of rep- representative democracy. [offscreen: Aw, you were nailing that too!] [slowly:] [offscreen: Ugh, man! I was just like, oh she gonna do it! Oh no.] [laughs]

HEAVILY influenced by French philosophers like Rousseau and Voltaire, and British philosophers like Hobbes and Locke, as well as the Iroquois Confederacy and its ideas of rep- [teeth clenched:] of representative democracy! [heavy inhale] Bah! It's fine, it's fine. [offscreen: It's all fine.]

Today we learned what culture is, and the difference between material and non-material culture. We learned about the three -we learned about three things. I'm getting worse. [laughs]

[music ending]

And just as leaders may differ in what they're trying to do, so too can they go about doing it in different ways. I'm talking here about leadership styles, of which there are three. [offscreen: Can you hit that three when you say three?] [whispers:] okay. [offscreen: Your European three?] This is a -this is a European three. [offscreen: This is, this is, this is central California three.] [laughing] This is weird. The- well then, then if you [offscreen: just because one, two, three, four, five.]

I don't like it. [laughs] [offscreen: No, the one that you're doing doesn't start with the pinky.] No, I don't know. I–I don't, I don't, [laughs] I don't like this [laughs] I don't enjoy this at all.
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