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Hank Green presides over this battle between the other two hosts of Eons. They know dinosaurs, but how much do they really know about industrial grease?

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Hosted by: Hank Green
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 (00:00) to (02:00)


Hank: Hello and welcome to SciShow Quiz Show.  I'm Hank Green and for the first time ever, I'm hosting SciShow Quiz Show and I am the one who gets to ask the questions and know all of the answers and you can't have them.  

Blake: The askee will be the asker.

H: That's right.  I know all the answers to every one of these questions.

Kallie: Step up.

H: Alex Trebek up here.  Today's contestants are Kallie Moore, the curator of the University of Montana Fossil Collection and real-life Ms. Frizzle and we also have Blake de Pastino, the editor-in-chief of SciShow and real-life Indiana Jones.  

B: Oh!  I do have a work-related whip in my office.

K: That's awesome.  Why is it not here?  Why are we not cracking a whip right now?  

H: I didn't know about that and now I have a lot of questions, but we'll get to those after the show's done taping.

B: Yep.  It was--Halloween costume.

H: Oh, okay.  Oh, that's work-related?  

B: Um, because it's in the office.  

H: I was worried about--

B: It's a management tool that I use.  The content team will explain.  

H: And the reason we have all of us and Michael Aranda's not here today is because we are all the hosts of Eons, a YouTube channel that's doing really well.  I love what we're doing there and every episode comes out, I'm always really excited to watch.

B: It's a ton of fun to do.

H: Yeah.  Though, so, thanks for working with me on that, and I'm happy working with you on it.  

B: I have a funny anecdote about that show if I can interject.  I was just talking to Nick Jenkins, who's the director of Eons, and I said, hey, I'm going on SciShow Quiz Show, and he said, who are you competing against and I said Kallie, and he went, good to know ya.  

H: Good to know--

B: So I think--I get the sense I'm gonna have my own liver handed to me in this game.

K: I don't know.  I have a very limited--

H: We're trying to avoid your areas of expertise, both of your areas of expertise.

B: Okay, okay.

K: Yeah, there you go.  

B: Well, that, yeah.  For me, that's a lot.  

H: Yeah.

B: For what I don't know.

H: So but if we can impress people with our knowledge, maybe they'll go watch Eons.  

B: Oh, okay.

K: Pressure.  

H: No pressure.

K: Pressure's on.  

B: We could do--we could try it that way, too, I guess.  

 (02:00) to (04:00)

H: I also wanna say thank you to our Patrons on Patreon.  We have chosen two of you at random to get prizes for your representing those people.  Kallie, you're playing for Dennis Kibler and Blake, you are playing for Christina Bialik, so if you win--

B: Good luck.  

H: You get stuff either way, whether you win or not.

K: Everybody's a winner here.

H: You're just playing for pride.  There is a loser and it will be one of you.  Now, Stefan, show our players what they can win.

Stefan: Oh boy, here we go again.  Dennis and Christina, it's time to learn about what you can win today!  Everyone's gonna be taking home the signed cards from our final round with our contestants' final guesses and wagers on them.  The winner of today's Quiz Show will get an 'I Won SciShow Quiz Show' pin and some top secret SciShow swag from and the loser of the show will be able to soothe their broken dreams with a pin that declares them the loser of the show.  The anticipation is killing me, so let's get on with it.  

H: Alright, so the way this works is both of you start out with 1,000 SciShow bucks.  For every question you get correctly, you'll get 200 SciShow bucks more, and for every question you get incorrect, you will lose 100 SciShow bucks and I have no idea why this is the way it works.

B: What if I refuse to answer?

H: You cannot refuse to answer.

B: Okay.  Can I challenge Kallie to a dance-off instead?

H: No.  

B: No.  

H: Could--are there lifelines?  No.  Can you do it like Game of Thrones where you have two people fight for your guilt or innocence and then whoever wins--no.  You can't do that either.  

B: That would--okay.  So this is a question answering game.

H: Yeah, you--

B: Okay.  

H: Just to be cl--yeah.  We just don't want--we don't want people gaming the system, so you have to answer the question.

B: You have to hit the thing first.

H: You can if you want to.

B: Okay.  

H: It's kinda doesn't work very well.  

K: It's okay.  It's a button.  

H: Yeah.  It's a tap light from the 90s.  

K: With a cat sticker on it.

H: It does have a cat sticker on the back.  

 (04:00) to (06:00)

So we've done a lot of SciShow episodes about the topic of our first round and that's mostly because of Blake, because every time you come back from traveling, you have like, a bunch of questions that you wanna answer and then you answer them and you write SciShow episodes about them, but somehow, there are still a few aspects of the science of travel that we have not covered and that is the topic of this first round.

B: Okay.

H: Number one.  The question's about airplanes.  You might have noticed that plane wings have these little pods sticking out underneath them.  They look a little bit like engines but that's not what they are.  They are called flap track fairings because they contain the mechanism that moves the flaps on the wings, but they also have another important job.  Question is, what else are flap track fairings used for?  A: Reserve fuel tanks, B: Reducing drag, C: Warming up the wings to prevent ice build up, or D: Keeping the wings from bending too much.

K: B.  

H: Correct.  They are there to reduce drag, which is what most of the plane is there for.

K: Yeah, yeah, that's what I figured.  That was a easy--that was a softball, I feel like.  

H: I feel like this is Blake's round and already--

B: Yeah, I was thinking about something else.  I was lost in your eyes.  

M: The answer is B, reducing drag.  Most commercial jets cruise at around 4/5 the speed of sound, which is where aerodynamics can start to get even messier than usual.  That's the point where shockwaves start to form around the plane, because even though the plane isn't moving faster than the speed of sound, some of the nearby air gets pushed faster than the speed of sound.  These shockwaves lead to what's known as wave drag, which is a really strong form of drag that you want to minimize.  That's why we have flap track fairings, also sometimes called anti-shock bodies.  According to a physics principle called the area rule, when you're traveling close to the speed of sound, having abrupt transitions between bigger and smaller cross-sections of the plane leads to much more drag and that's bad.  In commercial jets, most abrupt transition is between the area by the wings, which is pretty big, and the area of the plane just behind the wings, which is much smaller.

 (06:00) to (08:00)

So the flap track farings stick out of the back of the wings to give that cross-section a little more area and a little less drag. 

H: Number two, this next question is about something weird on the inside of planes.  Airplane windows are actually made up of three panes of glass.  There's the one on the inside, which is basically a cheap layer that is meant to be the one that gets all scratched up, and then there are two on the outside of the plane that are both built to withstand all the stress that comes with being an airplane window.  It's a hard job, but have you ever noticed that there's a little hole at the bottom of the window through the two inner panes of glass?  Why is that there?  A: to equalize the pressure with the inside of the plane, B: to help firefighters break the window in case of an emergency, C: to increase the overall strength of the window, or D: to give the window some flexibility as the temperature changes?

B: Um, A.

H: Correct.

K: Dang it.

H: Yeah.  Probably that was a pretty easy one, but that's cool, yeah.  'Cause you don't want 'em like, blowing up like a balloon in there.

B: Right, exactly.

H: (?~6:58)  

B: Although they are all equally plausible answers, which I like about that question.

H: I disagree.  Well, I mean, why would a firefighter need to break a, like a plane window?  

K: A window, they have exit hatches.  Forward and rear doors.

H: Like, so you can like, pass a baby through it?  It's not very big.  Like, here, take my dachshund.  

B: Schmoopy must live.  

M: The answer is A, to equalize the pressure with the inside of the plane.  Having a hole through a window might seem strange, because airplanes are one of those things that you really wanna stay sealed, but there's a good reason for it.  Even though the outer two panes of glass are designed to withstand the difference in pressure between the outside and inside of the plane, the middle pane is meant to be a back-up in case the outer one fails, but if both outer panes have the same stresses all the time, if the outer pane breaks, the middle one probably will, too.  By drilling a hole through the inner and middle layer, the air in the cabin can get in between the outer and middle panes of glass, meaning that only the outer pane of glass has to deal with the pressure differential.  Then, if the outer pane cracks or breaks, the middle one is basically good as new when it has to take over, and the tiny hole isn't really a problem.  It's way to small to depressurize the whole cabin.

H: Alright, number three, enough about planes.

 (08:00) to (10:00)

Let's talk about cars.  In almost all cars, there's a black band running around the edge of the windshield and windows, which usually transitions into little black dots before you get to just plain glass.  All that black stuff is called frit.  Usually there's a bunch of these little dots at the top of the windshield, too, where they help block some sunlight and make it easier to see, but the band around the edge of the glass also has another purpose.  What is it?  A: Blunting the edges of the glass so it's less sharp, B: Keeping the glass from shattering as easily, C: Sealing on a UV protective coating, or D: Keeping the glue on the glass from degrading?

K: C.

B: I also say C.

H: Well you--

K: I win!

H: Then you both lose 200 points.  

B: Whoo!

H: Why would you not win?  

B: If I go down, you go down with me.  

H: No, that's--no.  

K: No.  No.  

B: That's totally how it works.

H: Well, I don't know what to do in that situation except that you both lose 200 points.  That was unnecessary, Blake.  

B: I like that answer.

H: It is D.  It is D, to keep the glue on the glass from degrading.  

B: What if I don't accept that answer?

H: Well, we're gonna have somebody tell you all about it right now.

B: Okay.

M: The answer is D, keeping the glue on the glass from degrading.  Frit is made from a type of ceramic paint and it's there for a few reasons.  One is pretty simple: it helps the adhesive stick to the glass so your windshield and windows don't fall out of your car.  That's important.  But even if the glue's stuck just fine, the UV light from the sun could degrade it over time, so the frit helps block out that light.  The thing is, when the glass is being bent into shape during the manufacturing process, the band heats up much faster than the rest of the glass, which can distort what you see through it.  The dots between the band and the glass help smooth out that distortion, plus, they make the transition a little less ugly.

H: So the situation is, I said 200 but I meant 100.  You both lose 100 points. I'm just not very good at remembering how the rules go.  It's my first time.  It's round two now.  This one is not so much about a subject as it is about a tendency.  The tendency for scientific words to sometimes be extremely entertaining.

 (10:00) to (12:00)

Alright, so question number four: Sometimes, terms in science are just unpronounceable jargon to anyone outside of the field, but other times, scientists tell it like it is.  The technical terms are very descriptive and also sometimes kind of hilarious.  That tends to happen a lot in astronomy, actually.  Researchers are often trying to describe something that's just very hard to explain without using words like 'spaghetti-fication', which is the term for the stretching and squeezing that can happen inside a black hole.  So, the question is, which of the following words is not a technical term in astronomy: A: sloshing, B: seeing, C: fuzzball, or D: gunk?  

K: Ohh, you're waiting for me to do it.  

H: Sloshing, seeing, fuzzball, gunk.

K: A.

H: A, sloshing?  Sloshing is a thing.  Sloshing is a thing.  Okay, you have to guess.

B: So now I have to answer?

H: Yes, now you can answer.  

B: This would be an appropriate time?

H: You have...

B: Seeing, sloshball, or gunk?

H: Seeing, fuzzball, or gunk.

K: Fuzzball.

B: Uh, they all--I'm going to say 'seeing'.  

H: 'Seeing' is a technical term in astronomy.  The answer, my friends, is gunk, and now we will find out why.

M: The answer is D, gunk.  In astronomy, 'sloshing' refers to pockets of cool gas sloshing around in galaxy clusters.  The term was coined in 2001 by a team of researchers at Harvard, and since then, astronomers have been finding more and more examples of it.  'Seeing' describes the clarity of the image you're getting with your telescope.  So if it's a clear night and there's not much turbulence in the atmosphere interfering with the view, you'd say there's good 'seeing'.  'Fuzzball' is a concept from string theory, the idea that the universe is made up of tiny vibrating strings.  In some versions of string theory, black holes are called 'fuzzballs'.  The basic idea is that instead of having a singularity at the center where gravity becomes infinite, inside of a black hole is a bunch of these strings.  'Gunk' on the other hand, is not an official thing in astronomy, at least, not yet.  

 (12:00) to (14:00)

H: Number five, next question is about diarrhea.  That's di-urea, a type of molecule that gets its name from the fact that it's two connected molecules of urea.  

B: I knew that's where you were going with that.

H: But it's more than just a funny name.  Di-urea is used all the time as an industrial chemical and weirdly enough, the name also happens to be pretty appropriate for what it's used for.  So, what is it used for, A: as a thickener in grease, B: to melt ice on planes, C: to clean septic tanks, D: to dissolve strong adhesives?  The kind that glues your glass in place, that frit there to prevent--anyway.  

B: Oh, you're done?

H: Yeah.  Alright, what do you got for me?

B: C.  

H: C, to clean septic tanks.  No.  

B: Oh, nuts.  

K: Ooh.

H: So as a thickener in grease, to melt ice on planes, or to dissolve strong adhesives?

K: I'm gonna go with the dissolve strong adhesives.

H: No.  The answer is as a thickener in grease.  

K: Weird.

H: You wanna put a bunch of di-urea in your grease to make it thicker.

K: Ahh, I was thinking urea, like a lot of animals have urea in their pee and pee is acidic.

B: That's what I was thinking about a septic tank, yeah.  

H: Yeah.  

K: Tricky.  That was tricky.

H: I bet you could--yeah, anyway, now we'll find out more about that.

M: The answer is A, it's a thickener in grease.  Yep.  There's di-urea in industrial lube.  That's fun to say.  Grease is generally made up of two main components, a base oil and a thickener.  Di-urea is often used for the thickening part, and so are other polyureas, molecules that have multiple connected ureas.  A big problem with grease is that it can react with oxygen and degrade over time, and if there are metallic elements in the grease, they can act as catalysts, making those reactions happen faster.  Many thickeners have metal in them, but polyureas don't, and that's why polyurea grease is so useful.  It lasts much longer without degrading.

H: Now, you might have noticed that none of these questions have so far had anything to do with natural history or paleontology or even animals, and that was on purpose, for obvious reasons, because we don't want you to just know all the answers.

K: Yes.  

 (14:00) to (16:00)

H: But this last question, the one where you get to bet as many points as you would like, as long as you have them, is about an animal, and that's all I'm going to tell you about it.  And now you place your bets, and while they're doing that, we'll go to commercial break, if it works, which it usually doesn't.  You guys pointed up?  Alright, Africanized beez, AKA killer bees, have a strange  history.  I'm going to tell you all about it right now.  They were bred on purpose in Brazil back in the 1950s as a hybrid African and European bee.  

K: 'Cause people are crazy.

H: Well, the European bees were gentler, but they did not thrive in the South American climate, while African bees did well, but were more aggressive.  The hope was that the hybrid bee would thrive and stay gentle, except it did not lose the aggression, and then, in 1957, a bunch of hybrid bees escaped the lab.  Ever since, they've been spreading throughout South America and all the way up into the Southern US.  These bees are so aggressive that hundreds of them will swarm people at once, and about 1,000 people have died from their stings over the last six decades, but the name 'killer bee' doesn't actually come from their history of killing humans.  It's from another unfortunate behavior.  So what do they do?  Is it that, A: they spread a chronic bee paralysis virus, B: they take over nests of European bees, C: their swarms damage crops, or D: they kill entire herds of cattle to get to the flowers in their pastures?  

K: No, you gotta write it on the card.  

H: You gotta write it on the card.

B: Oh.

H: And then we'll find out.

B: And you might--

H: You both get to see if you were right or wrong.

B: Oh.

K: Alright, let's see--

B: I would like to preface this by saying this is unfair, because Kallie knows things.

K: I don't know a lot about bees.

B: And a fun fact about me is that I know zero facts.

K: I don't know a lot about bees.  Sorry, Dennis, I don't know a lot about bees.

H: You just, you're just a filter.  It comes through your head.  It does not stay in there.

B: Yeah, exactly, just ffff.

K: Well, every time you learn something new, something else has to like, get out of the way, you know?  

 (16:00) to (18:00)

B: It just pushes old facts out.  I have the same problem.

H: That's right.  That's why I've stopped learning things.  

K: Have you guys done Japanese hornets on this?  They're so awesome.  These little, these cute little honeybees attack these hornets and they surround it and they vibrate til they increase their temperature and they like bake the hornet.

H: Until they like, they get hot, yeah.

B: Yeah, and they like, get hot inside.

K: I was hoping that was where this was going.

H: No.  That's a good way to kill a hornet.

K: Yeah.

H: It's not how I'd do it, but, just get up close and bzzz.  Probably wouldn't work as well for me.  So now, display your answers to your cameras now.  We've got B? or the cattle thing without a question mark.  I have to tell you, Blake, you're wrong, but Kallie is right.

K: Yes!  

B: Aww.

K: There you go, Dennis.  Came back!

B: Sorry.

H: They take over the nests of European bees.  They kill the--the bees kill the bees.  They don't kill peop--they do kill people, but that's not why they're called killer bees.

M: The answer is B, they take over nests of European bees.  The name 'killer bee' is really a bad translation of what the Brazilians called these hybrid bees.  They're known as assassin bees in Portuguese, and that's a much better description of what they do to European bee nests.  Small swarms of Africanized bees will start hanging out near the nest, exchanging pheromones and sharing food with the Europeans.  Apparently, the European bees don't really notice what's going on, because eventually, the Africanized bees will take over, kill the queen, and establish their own queen as head of the hive.  It's true that getting swarmed by hundreds of them can be deadly for humans.  That's because the bees are really defensive of their nests.  They aren't seeking out and destroying nests.  The European bees aren't as lucky.

H: Thank you to both of you and for all of you for joining us here on SciShow Quiz Show.  We hope you enjoyed the ride.  Please remember to take all of your personal items with you and if you wanna see more from all of us, you can see our channel, which is all about the history of all of life on Earth, like how are planet might once have been purple was a recent episode.  You can check out PBS Eons at, which is a pretty frickin' great YouTube URL if I do say so myself.

 (18:00) to (18:18)