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Welcome back to SciShow Quiz Show! Katelyn Salem of Kate Tectonics competes against Googleable internet sensation, Hank Green.

Kate Tectonics:

Hosted by: Michael Aranda
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Cold Seep

Squid Brains


 (00:00) to (02:00)


M: Ladies and gentlemen, boys and girls, welcome to SciShow: Quiz Show, where we'e pretty sure that most of the facts are accurate.  Today on the show, we have Hank Green, soon to be father and internet extraordinaire.  

H: I am internet.

M: Yes.  Competing against Hank, we have the host of KateTectonics and rock and mineral enthusiast Katelyn Salem.

H: Where is our live studio audience?  It would be so much more fun.  Why don't we do this at like, The Crystal, and just have like, rent it out, and just have a bunch of people there?

M: I don't know.

H: Sounds expensive and a pain in the butt.  

K: That sounds fun to me.  If you could have just like, fillers.

M: If there's anyone here who can pull it off...

H: Caitlin could.  Yeah.  

M: Today, Hank, you will be competing on behalf of Faith McNickle.

H: Hi Faith.  I like nickels.  And nickel.  Both of those things.  

M: It's actually N-I-C-H-O-L, but...

H: Well, I bet there's an etomological link.

M: Okay.  Katelyn, you are playing for Kyle Dark. 

K: Oooh, Kyle Dark.  

H: Don't hurt me.  

M: I'm starting both of you off with 1,000 SciShow bucks, and each time you answer a question correctly, you will win some number of points.   If you answer it incorrectly, you will lose some number of points.

H: If I just left now, could I just keep my thousand SciShow bucks?

M: I suppose that's true.  If you just didn't play right now, you would have 1,000 points at the end of the game.

K: But then I could also not play right now and then we'd just be tied.

H: We'd just tie and then we'd skip right to the daily double part, though.  We could skip all the stuff and just go straight to the--

M: Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Quiz Show--

Whoever has the most points at the end of the game, assuming we play the game, wins some prizes.  Stefan, what can our contestants take home today?

S: Thanks, Michael.  Just to let the folks at home know, we choose the Patrons that our contestants play for at random from all of our Patreon patrons, so if you support us on Patreon at any level, you could be the next person to be played for on the show.  For today though, both Faith and Kyle will be taking home signed cards from our final round with our contestants' final guesses and wagers on them.  The winner will receive the "I Won SciShow Quiz Show" pin and the loser will receive the highly coveted "I Lost SciShow Quiz Show" pin.  But the winner will also take home some secret SciShow swag from  Back to you, Michael.

 (02:00) to (04:00)

M: Round one is called rock bottom.  

H: Oh, are we doing geology?  This is not fair.  

K: I'm so ready.  

M: This round is all about the stuff in the depth of the ocean. 

H: Oh, okay.

M: Starting with shipwrecks.

K: I don't know that much about oceans.  This is--shipwrecks are not rocks.  

H: No, they make ships out of not-rock.  There are no rock ships.

K: Okay, let's see see what it says.

M: There might be millions of sunken ships scattered around Earth's ocean floors and we've only discovered a tiny fraction of them.  They hold clues to human history, but they also become part of the ocean ecosystem, giving food and shelter to marine life.  One of the most famous wrecks is the RMS Titanic.  Maybe you've heard of it.  Which sunk in 1912 and was discovered by researchers in 1985.  It was a huge deal for historians but also for scientists, because researchers found an entirely new species living off the materials from the ship.  Was it an anemone, a kind of bacteria, a coral, or a worm?  

H: Leonardo diCaprio.  I'm gonna say a worm.  

M: You are incorrect.

H: Ah, well, you know, I tried.

M: So that's -100 points for Hank.

H: Alright.

M: You now have an opportunity to--

K: I'm glad that I didn't guess because I was also going to say a worm.  

H: Alright, well, I'm glad that now we're on the same page.

 (04:00) to (06:00)

K: You lost the points and I didn't, and  that's okay.  

H: Answer anyway, though.

M: Just do it.

H: You got a 1 in 3 chance.

K: Uh, uh, whatever C was.  

M: A coral?

K: Yes.

M: You are also incorrect.  

H: Wait, wait, was it an anemone?

K: Do I lose points?

M: No.  

H: Was it a fish?

K: What was the first one?

H: Was it a dolphin?

M: The first one was an anemone.

K: So the second one?

M: The second one was a kind of bacteria, which is the correct answer.

H: Oh come on.  That's--there's bacteria every--there--like, I could discover a new bacteria on my face!  

K: This has nothing to do with rocks.  I was told this show would be about rocks.

M: The answer is B, a new kind of bacteria.  Scientists discovered all of these creatures on the wreck of the Titanic, but the only brand new species was a bacterium which they called Halomonas titanicae.  The bacteria were living with lots of cousins in rusticles, which get their name because they look like rusty icicles sticking out from the hull of the ship.  They form when these bacteria feed on the iron in the hull and then produce iron oxides, also known as rust, to create a cone-like structure that becomes home for lots of microbes.  Between biological corrosion and normal chemical degredation, some scientists think the Titanic shipwreck may only be there for a couple more decades before it's completely lost to the ocean.

H: Okay.  

M: Moving along, there are plenty of other places in the deep ocean that life can flourish.  Hydrothermal vents, for example, where geothermically heated mineral-rich waters spew out from fissures in the ocean crust thanks to volcanic activity underneath.  There are different kinds of hydrothermal vents, depending on what chemicals are in the water, and they provide energy and nutrients to organisms like bacteria, plants, tubeworms, and crabs.  Very similar communities live around other formations called cold seeps.  So what is a cold seep?  Is it the chemical-rich water seeping up from the ocean crust that is below 0 degrees Celsius, chemical-rich water seeping up from the ocean crust below -20 degrees Celsius, large salt deposits seeping up into the water to form dense briny patches, or hydrocarbon-rich fluids seeping up slowly from the seafloor?

 (06:00) to (08:00)

K: C.  

M: You are incorrect.

K: No!

H: I mean, I--this is not my--either of our areas of expertise  I'm gonna go with A.  

M: Also incorrect.

H: Man, I tell you what--

K: What was this?

M: Both losing 100 points each, I'm afraid.

The answer is D, where hydrocarbon rich fluids seep up slowly from the seafloor.  Like hydrothermal vents, cold seeps are home to extremophiles that thrive in the dark high pressure environment of the deep sea.  These organisms get their energy from eating each other or from chemical reactions in a process called chemosynthesis.  Cold seeps are also fissures in the sea crust, but there's no volcanic activity underneath.  Some of the chemicals that come out of hydrothermal vents like methane and other hydrocarbons also come out of cold seeps.  They just seep out at slower rates for longer periods of time, instead of all explosively.  Some dense salty brine pools can be considered cold seeps if they also have methane seeping up from the ocean crust to support chemosynthetic life.  But cold seeps aren't actually that much colder than the surrounding seawater.  They're just cold compared to the super hot hydrothermal vents.

H: I mean, we should have just left, Kaitlyn.  

M: In what episode of SciShow Quiz Show does anyone ever actually know the answers?

H: I often know the answers!

K: I mean, if anything, we've both answered wrong for both questions, so we're still equal.

H: We are equal.

K: And we can still leave.

H: We could still leave!

K: And be tied.

H: We each got 800 SciShow bucks.

M: The deep sea harbors a lot of strange looking life.  Bioluminescent organs, huge spiky teeth, and sometimes humongous bodies, like that of the giant squid.  All squids have some unusual adaptations that help them eat, like sharp beaks made of (?~7:48) and other tough proteins.

H: I know a lot about squids.

K: I don't know organisms, man.

M: Some even have a tongue-like organ with spiked teeth called a (?~7:58) to help them grind food into even tinier pieces.  Hank is really digging this.

H: I love squids.

 (08:00) to (10:00)

M: But if squids didn't break up their food, and just swallowed huge chunks of it, they would get very injured.  Why is that?  Is it because their esophagus would expand causing brain damage, their esophagus would expand and block their gills from the inside, their stomach enzymes would take too long to break down the foods so they'd starve, or their stomach would expand and put pressure on nearby neurons?   

H: A.  Their esophagus goes through their brain, because their brain is a circle with a hole in the middle.  What!

K: Really? 

M: Hank is correct!

The answer is A, their esophagus would expand and give them brain damage.  Squid brains are complex, but they're tiny compared to their bodies.  Their central brain is essentially a donut-shaped bundle of nervous tissue, which is made up of cells like neurons and glia, and it's protected by a casing made of cartilage-like protein.  It's really close to their beak, so their esophagus actually runs through this donut-shaped brain.  If a squid swallowed huge chunks of food, their expanding esophagus would squeeze against all that nervous tissue and probably damage the cells, which wouldn't be so great for the squid.  So some people say we could chew our food a little more than we do, but if you're a squid, not chewing your food could be deadly.

We are moving on to round two: the science of art.  

H: Oh. 

M: Art actually involves a whole lot of chemistry. 

H: Sure.

M: You studied chemistry?

H: Yes.

M: You studied chemistry?

K: Uh-huh.  A little bit.

M: The colorful part of paints and dyes, called the pigment, is basically any chemical substance that changes the wavelength of reflected light that you see.  That's how red pigments can make a fabric or canvas appear red, and before we knew how to synthesize safe colorful pigments, aritsts had to use more creative methods.  Grinding up lapis lazuli rocks, for example, made a rich ultramarine blue pigment while white lead produced a bright white but toxic paint.  

 (10:00) to (12:00)

H: I was really hoping the question was gonna be about white lead, 'cause I knew about that one.  That's pretty much all I know.  

M: Some pigments, though, had much weirder origins.  Which of the following methods is fake: grinding up mummified bodies to make the pigment mummy brown, feeding cows mango leaves and collecting their urine to make indian yellow--

K: What?

H: Ooh, yeah.  I bet that would work.

K: Let's try it later.

M: Boiling sea snails to make tyrian purple, or drying out elephant blood to make dragon's blood.

H: So like, tyrian like Tyrion Lannister?

Oh, you got first.

K: The dragon's blood one.

H: That's what I was gonna go for.

M: Well, you are just really correct about that.  

K: I got one right.

M: The answer is D, drying out elephant blood to make dragon's blood.  Dragon's blood is an awesome name for a bright red pigment, but it's not actually made from blood, dragon or elephant.  Instead, it's made from the sticky organic resin of several different types of trees, depending on who you ask.  Some people collect the red resin from the damaged branches of certain trees in the genus dracaena, which are mostly native to Africa or Southern Asia.  Others gather the red resins surrounding the unripe fruit from some trees in the genus Daemonorops, also known as rattan palms, which are mostly found in Southeast Asia.  The other three pigments, in fact, were really made from mummies, undernourished cow pee, and sea snail.

That's 200 points for Katelyn Salem.

K: Like a, it's like a brown--

H: 200--gahh!  Ugh!!  

K: Second round are 200 points?

H: Second round are 200 points.

K: Is that how it works?

H: Yeah.  

K: Ooh.

M: Pigments aren't the only important component of paint.  You also need a chemical binder so that the color can be spread around and dry properly, and different kinds of paints use different binders.  Acrylic paint, for example, was only developed around the 1940s, and it uses plastic polymers as a binder.  Oil paint, as you might guess, generally includes plant-based oils, but back in the 14th century, quick-drying tempura paint was all the rage with artists.  Nowadays, tempura paints tend to have a water soluble glue or gum base as a binder, but back then, it was commonly manufactured with a natural binder that might seem weird to us now.  

 (12:00) to (14:00)

Was it sour milk, bacon fat, egg yolks, or caramelized sugar?  

H: I mean, we had eggs and egg proteins are a good sticky thing, so I'm gonna go with egg yolks.

M: Hank Green, you are correct.

H: Yes!

M: For 200 points.

The answer is C, egg yolks.  Egg tempura used to be the go-to paint for illuminated manuscripts and wooden panels and it was typically made out of egg yolks, pigment, and a little water.  Egg yolks are made up of a lot of lipids, which are similar to the lipids used as binders in oil paints called drying oils, and a drying oil is one that hardens into a tough film after being exposed to the air.  See, the fatty acids in drying oils and egg yolk are mostly unsaturated, which means they have double bonds between some of the carbon atoms.  These double bonds let the lipids react with oxygen in the air so they polymerize to form a tangled network and lock the pigment in place.  Egg tempura recipes vary, but most of them told you to get rid of the egg whites because all the water and albumen proteins would change the consistency of the paint.

K: I hate whenever I make scrambled eggs and like, the whites get all over your hands and you can't get it off.

H: Yeah, you can't--it's a good water soluble binder!

K: Next time I need some glue, I'll just go and get some egg whites.  

H: Hey, actually, that's what the thing that people used to do is they would make thier mohawks with egg whites.

M: I sat behind a kid in Spanish class that did that.  

H: It must have smelled real good.

M: I don't remember.  

Glass blowing is usually thought of as an art form to create colorful, intricate sculptures, but it's also really important for scientific research, because the glassware in chemistry labs has to come from somewhere.  We have glass blowing to thank for things like lightbulbs and the tubes in early radios and televisions.  Some early experiments with electricity can be traced back to the scientific glass blower and physicist Heinrich Geisler, back in the mid 1800s.  He created Geisler tubes, which are glass tubes with electrodes at either end.  

 (14:00) to (16:00)

All those "Yes, we're open" neon signs you see in store windows are based on Geisler tubes, but what were Geisler tubes originally used for?  Was it gas chromatography, ion-mobility spectrometry, to study the effect of a magnetic field on gases, or to study the effect of electrical current on gases?  

K: Ion spectometry?

M: That is incorrect.

K: I lost my 200 points.

H: I'm gonna go with gas spectrometry.  

M: That is also incorrect.

H: It wasn't spectrometry at all!

M: The answer is D, to study the effect of electrical current on gases.  Geissler tubes are generally called gas discharge tubes were used to study what happened if you applied electrical currents to different gases, and that's how all kinds of lights work, like neon signs, flourescent bulbs, and those plasma globes.  Basically, if the voltage across a glass tube is high enough, some electrons will have enough energy to escape the atoms of gas, creating charged ions.  This keeps the current flowing.  Other electrons will stick with their atoms but jump to a higher energy unstable excited state.  To become stable again, this electron releases a photon with all that extra energy, which we see as visible colored light.  Atoms of different elements can release different photons of light, depending on their arrangement of electrons.  Neon gas, for example, tends to glow reddish-orange.  Lots of other researchers built off Geissler's technology, which led to things like the cathode ray tube experiment and the discovery of the electron.

So we've finally reached our final round, during which our contestants have an opportunity to bet some or all of their points on the correctness of their answer to the next question.  Hank, you have 900 points.  Katelyn, you have 800 points.  I can tell you right now that the topic of our next question  is medicine that was actually just toxic, so place your bets and we'll be right back after these commercial messages.

K: Okay.

M: Welcome back from what might have been a commercial.  I think usually when we put those in, it just fades out and fades right back in.  

 (16:00) to (18:00)

But anyway, these days, we're pretty good at turning toxins into medicine, isolating compounds from toxic plants or animal venoms that are helpful in really small doses, but we didn't always know what we were doing with that.  Around the 17th and 18th centuries, people believed that good health came from a proper balance of bodily fluids called humors.  If you were sick or just wanted to stay disease-free, you would purge fluids from your body to balance the humors and get rid of any toxins.  Sometimes this meant ingesting chemicals that caused violent vomiting and bowel emptying.  One such medicinal laxative was something called the everlasting pill, which they would swallow, poop out, and then re-use.  Delicious.  So what was the everlasting pill made of?  

H: Oh man.  This is like a really crazy Willy Wonka idea here.  Somebody needs to stop that man.

K: Everlasting gobstoppers.  

M: Was it a lump of animony, a metalloid, a chunk of cinnabar, a mercury-sulfide mineral, a bezoar, a hard mass of undigested calcium hair and other junk from goat intestines, or a piece of unicorn horn, which was actually just a narwhal tooth.  

H: None of those things do you wanna put inside of you.

M: Okay, you guys ready?  Reveal your answers.

H: I'm not sure!  

M: Hank, you are correct.

The answer is A, a lump of antimony.  This everlasting pill was actually just a lump of mostly pure animony.  It's toxic to humans, so swallowing an antimony pill makes your body want to purge everything.  Some people, including the British explorer Captain James Cook, owned antimony cups, which worked similarly.  People would leave wine in the cup overnight, let some of the antimony dissolve, and then drink this sweating, vomiting, diarrhea-causing liquid to feel all refreshed.  Specifically, the tartaric acid in the wine would react with the antimony in the cup to form antimony potassium tartarate, which is also called emetic tartar.

 (18:00) to (19:59)

Emetic means something that makes you vomit.  By the 1900s, though, people seemed to realize that there were safer laxatives out there, so these toxic antimony pills and cups became a thing of the past.  As for the other options, cinnabar is a toxic red mineral, but was mostly just used for pigment, jewelry, or as mercury ore.  Bezoars and narwhal teeth, on the other hand, were thought to protect people from poisons like arsenic in their food and wine, but they didn't really have any effect.

Hank wins 701 points, while Katelyn, I'm sorry to say--

K: I was hoping there would actually be a rock answer.  

M: --loses 600 points.  Oh dear.  

K: There's only one loser for this game and it's me.

H: No, there's two losers.  It's also Mr. Dark.  

M: So congratulations, Hank and Faith McNichol, sorry Katelyn and Kyle Dark.  

H: I tell you what, the presents are pretty much exactly the same.

M: Yeah, yeah, everybody's a winner here, because--

H: Yeah.  Right.  Try again.

M: I don't know what I was gonna say.  

H: You know what I know about these antimony pills, which is that they were passed down from generation to generation, so you would be pooping out the same rock that your grandpa did.

K: Ew.  It's an heirloom.  

M: Well.  Thank you for watching this episode of SciShow Quiz Show.  If you'd like to see more of Katelyn, you can find her at KateTectonics,  If you'd like to see more of Hank, you can find him in many, many places on the internet.  

H: My name is Hank Green, you can Google me.  That's what I say to people when they're like, so what do you do for a living?  I just say, my name is Hank Green, you can Google me, and then I walk away.  

K: Wow.

M: Dang.  

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